Penguin Modern European Poets

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The Penguin Modern European Poets series, a subseries of the Penguin Poet’s series, offered collections in verse translations of the work of significant poets of the 20th century. The series includes: Yevgeny Yevtushenko, Rainer Maria Rilke, Guillaume Apollinaire, Jacques Prevert, Quasmodo, Greek poets -Cavafy, Elytis, Gatsos, and Seferis, Miroslav Holub, Zbigniew Herbert, Hans Magnus Enzensberger, Gunter Grass, Vasko Popa, Sandor Weores, Ferenc Juhasz, Johannes Bobrowski, Horst Bienek, Eugenio Montale, Vladimir Holan, Anna Akhmatova, Gunnar Ekelof, Paul Celan, Amichai, Kovner, Sachs, Cesare Pavese, the Czech poets, Nezval, Bartusek, and Hanzlik, Ungaretti, Fernando Pessoa, and even Joseph Brodsky. The verse translations are by, among others, W. H. Auden, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Michael Hamburger, Ted Hughes, J. B. Leishman, Christopher Middleton and David Wevill.


Tschichold JanThe first book in the Penguin Poet’s series was a collection of Tennyson’s work, published in 1941. The series went through a number of incarnations, with Jan Tschichold in 1948, with its light green borders, to the wallpaper-like designs of Schmoler in 1954. Facetti changed the look the of line once again in 1966 to feature a Helvetica font.


Tschichold had a particular design vision in mind for the Penguin Poet’s series and devoted himself to enforcing that vision. It has been said that if a designer or printer presumed to challenge him, he would exaggerate his German accent and pretend not to understand. Tschichold’s legacy has defined Penguin’s design ever since.


Alvarez AlThe series started in 1963 with Al Alvarez as the advisory editor. Alfred Alvarez (5 August 1929 – 23 September 2019) was an English poet, novelist, essayist and critic who published under the name A. Alvarez and Al Alvarez. As the poetry editor and critic for The Observer, he introduced British readers to John Berryman, Robert Lowell, Sylvia Plath, Zbigniew Herbert, and Miroslav Holub. Alvarez is probably best known for his study of suicide, The Savage God, and his friendship with Sylvia Plath. Al Alvarez died at the age of 90 from viral pneumonia.



Stangos NikosThe in-house editor for the series at Penguin was Nikos Stangos. Nikos Stangos (November 21 1936 - April 16 2004) was an editor and poet, and an influential figure in British art publishing. He was born in Athens, Greece in 1936, both parents of old Greek families. His friendship with the poet Nanos Valaōritēs led to connections with a number of British poets including Stephen Spender. In the 1960s he met the writer David Plante, and they became lifelong partners. After securing an editorial position at Penguin Books, he worked as an editor of the Penguin Modern Poets series, and as a co-editor, with Al Alvarez, of the Penguin Modern European Poets series. His translation of Yannis Ritsos’s poetry for the series provided many English readers exposure to this important Greek poet’s work for the first time. After Penguin’s acquisition by Pearson in 1974, Stangos moved to Thames and Hudson, where he became a director of the company, a position he held until his retirement in May 2003.



Books in the Penguin Modern European Poets series:



pmep anna akhmatova selected poems d115Akhmatova, Anna. Selected Poems. Middlesex. 1969. Penguin Books. Penguin Modern European Poets series. Translated from the Russian and with an introduction by Richard McKane. Essay by Andrei Sinyavsky. 112 pages. paperback. D115. Front cover photo of Anna Akhmatova by Polyakova, Leningrad.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - Anna Akhmatova, who died in 1966, was among this century's greatest Russian poets. Andrei Sinyavsky writes of her: 'From the barest whisper to fiery eloquence, from downcast eyes to lightning and thunderbolts - such is the range of Akhmatova's inspiration and voice.' Richard McKane's moving English translations do justice to a poet whose famous cycle, 'Requiem', was recognized as a fitting memorial to the sufferings of millions of Russians under Stalin.



Akhmatova AnnaAnna Akhmatova (1889–1966), one of twentieth-century Russia’s greatest poets, was viewed as a dangerous element by post-Revolution authorities. One of the few unrepentant poets to survive the Bolshevik revolution and subsequent Stalinist purges, she set for herself the artistic task of preserving the memory of pre-Revolutionary cultural heritage and of those who had been silenced.






0140421416Amichai, Yehuda. Selected Poems. Middlesex. 1971. Penguin Books. 0140421416. Penguin Modern European Poets series. Translated by Assia Gutmann and Harold Schimmel with the collaboration of Ted Hughes. With an introduction by Michael Hamburger. 96 pages. paperback. Cover design by Sylvia Clench, photo by Thomas Simmons.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - Yehuda Amichai is one of Israel’s leading post-war writers, and his response to the land and its people reflects the feelings of many of his contemporaries. Yet, although he has lived there since the age of thirteen and has been actively involved in Arab-Israeli conflict, he has retained a European, individual sensibility. The freshness of his perception and the intimacy of his recollections come through vividly in these English translations of his poems.



Amichai YehudaYehuda Amichai (3 May 1924 – 22 September 2000) was an Israeli poet. Amichai is considered by many, both in Israel and internationally, as Israel's greatest modern poet. He was also one of the first to write in colloquial Hebrew. Yehuda Amichai [was] for generations the most prominent poet in Israel, and one of the leading figures in world poetry since the mid-1960s. (The Times, London, Oct. 2000). He was awarded the 1957 Shlonsky Prize, the 1969 Brenner Prize, 1976 Bialik Prize, and 1982 Israel Prize. He also won international poetry prizes: 1994 – Malraux Prize: International Book Fair (France), 1995 – Macedonia`s Golden Wreath Award: International Poetry Festival, and more.



0140420827Apollinaire, Guillaume. Selected Poems: Apollinaire. Baltimore. 1970. Penguin Books. 0140420827. Penguin Modern European Poets Series. Translated from the French & With An Introduction by Oliver Bernard. 89 pages. paperback.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - Guillaume Apollinaire was a friend and supporter of the Cubists. His own experimental poetic forms employ rhythms which dispense with punctuation and a style of typography derived from exercises on postcards sent from the front in the First World War. Yet he is also in France the last of the poets whose lines young people know by hearts. ‘He said that poetry is a power to transform even the dullest activities of the mind, to waken the consciousness to a more vivid awareness and to make everything more exciting and more fascinating. This is what he himself did’ – Sir Maurice Bowra.



Apollinaire GuillaumeWilhelm Albert Wlodzimierz Apolinary Kostrowicki, known as Guillaume Apollinaire (Rome, 26 August 1880 - 9 November 1918, Paris) was a French poet, playwright, short story writer, novelist, and art critic born in Italy to a Polish mother. Among the foremost poets of the early 20th century, he is credited with coining the word Surrealism and writing one of the earliest works described as surrealist, the play The Breasts of Tiresias (1917, used as the basis for a 1947 opera). Two years after being wounded in World War I, he died in the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918 at age 38.




0140421734Arp, Hans / Schwitters, Kurt / Klee, Paul. Three Painter-Poets: Arp/Schwitters/Klee - Selected Poems. Middlesex. 1974. Penguin Books. 0140421734. Penguin Modern European Poets series. Translated and with an introduction by Harriet Watts. 160 pages. paperback. The cover shows a detail of ‘Filth and Greatest’, a collage by Kurt Schwitters.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - Gleamt beseethe zigzags. / Drizzle-trees piss grimace flowers. / Spring waft torches flamingly. / Sprinkle bladders beefsuet (due to paper shortage). - Lines like these (from 'Wheyweight Silverleaf Blossoms' by Kurt Schwitters) inevitably command attention. If Hans Arp, Kurt Schwitters and Paul Klee never quite achieved by their poetry the recognition accorded to their visual art, yet it serves to remind us how far Europe has travelled since Michelangelo wrote sonnets. The poems in this volume offer an intriguing insight into the visual art of three pioneers of the Twentieth Century.


Arp Hans Schwitters Kurt Klee PaulJean Arp or Hans Arp (16 September 1886 – 7 June 1966) was a German-French sculptor, painter, poet, and abstract artist in other media such as torn and pasted paper. When Arp spoke in German he referred to himself as ‘Hans’, and when he spoke in French he referred to himself as ‘Jean’. Throughout the 1930s and until the end of his life, he wrote and published essays and poetry. In 1942, he fled from his home in Meudon to escape German occupation and lived in Zürich until the war ended. Arp's career was distinguished with many awards including the Grand Prize for sculpture at the 1954 Venice Biennale, a sculpture prizes at the 1964 Pittsburgh International, the 1963 Grand Prix National des Arts, the 1964 Carnegie Prize, the 1965 Goethe Prize from the University of Hamburg, and then the Order of Merit with a Star of the German Republic. Arp and his first wife, the artist Sophie Taeuber-Arp, became French nationals in 1926. In the 1930s, they bought a piece of land in Clamart and built a house at the edge of a forest. Influenced by the Bauhaus, Le Corbusier and Charlotte Perriand, Taeuber designed it. She died in Zürich in 1943. After living in Zürich, Arp was to make Meudon his primary residence again in 1946. Arp married the collector Marguerite Hagenbach (1902–1994), his long-time companion, in 1959. He died in 1966, in Basel, Switzerland. Kurt Hermann Eduard Karl Julius Schwitters (20 June 1887 – 8 January 1948) was a German artist who was born in Hanover, Germany. Schwitters worked in several genres and media, including Dada, Constructivism, Surrealism, poetry, sound, painting, sculpture, graphic design, typography, and what came to be known as installation art. He is most famous for his collages, called Merz Pictures. Paul Klee (18 December 1879 – 29 June 1940) was a Swiss-German artist. His highly individual style was influenced by movements in art that included Expressionism, Cubism, and Surrealism. Klee was a natural draftsman who experimented with and eventually deeply explored color theory, writing about it extensively; his lectures Writings on Form and Design Theory (Schriften zur Form und Gestaltungslehre), published in English as the Paul Klee Notebooks, are held to be as important for modern art as Leonardo da Vinci's A Treatise on Painting for the Renaissance. He and his colleague, Russian painter Wassily Kandinsky, both taught at the Bauhaus school of art, design and architecture. His works reflect his dry humor and his sometimes childlike perspective, his personal moods and beliefs, and his musicality.



0140421602Blok, Alexander. Selected Poems. Baltimore. 1974. Penguin Books. 0140421602. Penguin Modern European Poets series. Translated from the Russian by John Stallworthy & Peter France. 143 pages. paperback. Cover design by Sylvia Clench.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - Though he inspired a generation of Russian poets, including Pasternak, Alexander Blok has yet to be widely recognized in the West. Torn between accepting the Revolution, with its attendant excesses, and betraying his ideals, he chose to stay in Russia until he died in 1921, although he was regarded with suspicion by both sides and suffered increasing disillusionment. This collection of poems from every stage of his life, jointly translated by a linguist and a poet, aims to introduce the English reader to the distinctive and influential voice of Alexander Blok.



Blok AlexanderAlexander Alexandrovich Blok (28 November 1880 – 7 August 1921) was a Russian lyrical poet. Blok was born in Saint Petersburg, into a sophisticated and intellectual family. Some of his relatives were literary men, his father being a law professor in Warsaw, and his maternal grandfather the rector of Saint Petersburg State University. After his parents' separation, Blok lived with aristocratic relatives at the manor Shakhmatovo near Moscow, where he discovered the philosophy of Vladimir Solovyov, and the verse of then-obscure 19th-century poets, Fyodor Tyutchev and Afanasy Fet. These influences would affect his early publications, later collected in the book Ante Lucem. In 1903 he married Lyubov (Lyuba) Dmitrievna Mendeleeva, daughter of the renowned chemist Dmitri Mendeleev. Later, she would involve him in a complicated love-hate relationship with his fellow Symbolist Andrei Bely. To Lyuba he dedicated a cycle of poetry that made him famous, Stikhi o prekrasnoi Dame (Verses About the Beautiful Lady, 1904). During the last period of his life, Blok emphasized political themes, pondering the messianic destiny of his country (Vozmezdie, 1910–21; Rodina, 1907–16; Skify, 1918). Influenced by Solovyov's doctrines, he had vague apocalyptic apprehensions and often vacillated between hope and despair. ‘I feel that a great event was coming, but what it was exactly was not revealed to me’, he wrote in his diary during the summer of 1917. Quite unexpectedly for most of his admirers, he accepted the October Revolution as the final resolution of these apocalyptic yearnings. By 1921 Blok had become disillusioned with the Russian Revolution. He did not write any poetry for three years. Blok complained to Maksim Gorky that his ‘faith in the wisdom of humanity’ had ended. He explained to his friend Korney Chukovsky why he could not write poetry any more: ‘All sounds have stopped. Can't you hear that there are no longer any sounds?’ Within a few days Blok became sick. His doctors requested that he be sent for medical treatment abroad, but he was not allowed to leave the country. Gorky pleaded for a visa. On 29 May 1921, he wrote to Anatoly Lunacharsky: ‘Blok is Russia's finest poet. If you forbid him to go abroad, and he dies, you and your comrades will be guilty of his death’. Blok received permission only on 10 August, after his death. Several months earlier, Blok had delivered a celebrated lecture on Alexander Pushkin, the memory of whom he believed to be capable of uniting White and Soviet Russian factions.



0140421335Bobrowski, Johannes and Bienek, Horst. Selected Poems. Baltimore. 1971. Penguin Books. 0140421335. Translated from the German by Ruth & Matthew Mead. Penguin Modern European Poets series. 128 pages. paperback. The cover, designed by Sylvia Clench, shows: large detail, Horst Bienek; small detail, Johannes Bobrowski.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - Both the poets included in this volume were born in East Germany and have experienced the desolation of exile. Bobrowski, whose international reputation was established by 1965 when he died, describes the essence of his homeland in language that is controlled, precise and stark. Bienek, the younger poet, is at present living in West Germany. His poetry, not previously published in England, probes the wounds inflicted by four years in a Russian prison camp.



Bobrowski Johannes and Bienek HorstJohannes Bobrowski was born in 1917 in Tilsit in East Prussia, and educated in Rastenburg, Konigsberg and at Humboldt University in Berlin. His first book of poetry was published in 1961 and quickly established his international reputation. He wrote four volumes of poetry, two novels, and several collections of short stories. A selection of these stories, DARKNESS AND A LITTLE LIGHT, was published by New Directions. Bobrowski died in East Berlin in 1965. Horst Bienek (May 7, 1930, Gleiwitz – December 7, 1990, Munich) was a German novelist. Born in Gleiwitz, Germany (today Gliwice, Poland), Bienek was forced to leave there in 1945, when Germans were expelled from Silesia. He resettled in the eastern part of Germany. For a time, he was a student of Bertolt Brecht. In 1951, he was arrested by NKVD and sentenced to 25 years of labour in Vorkuta, a gulag. When he was released as the result of an amnesty in 1955, he settled in West Germany. Bienek was the winner of numerous prizes, including the Nelly Sachs Prize in 1981. His best known work is the four-volume series of novels dealing with the prelude to World War II and the war itself, Gleiwitz, Eine oberschlesische Chronik in vier Romanen.



0140421645Brodsky, Joseph. Selected Poems. Baltimore. 1974. Penguin Books. 0140421645. Penguin Modern European Poets series. Translated from the Russian & Introduced by George L. Kline. Foreword by W. H. Auden. 168 pages. paperback. Cover design by Sylvia Clench. Photo by J. Richard McGinnis.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - Joseph Brodsky was one of the younger generation of Russian poets, though most of his poetry has never been published in Russia and he became an involuntary exile in the United States, having been officially ‘invited’ to leave the Soviet Union. He is not a ‘public’ poet, however, and does not deal in propaganda; his poetry is personal and meditative, infused with a deep sense of suffering and having close affinities with the English metaphysical poets. He is concerned with the realities of love and death, of separation and solitude, and with the ‘unity of poetry and life’ and their struggle against the ‘dead things.’ It is these factors that incensed the Soviet authorities against him; the fact that he is Jewish did not help matters. As W. H. Auden says in his Foreword, Brodsky is ‘a poet of the first order, a man of whom his country should be proud.’


Brodsky JosephJoseph Brodsky (1940-96) came to the United States in 1972, an involuntary exile from the Soviet Union. He received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1987 and serve as Poet Laureate of the United States in 1991 and 1992.









0140421564Carmi, T. and Pagis, Dan. Selected Poems. Middlesex. 1976. Penguin Books. 0140421564. Penguin Modern European Poets series. Translated by Stephen Mitchell. Introduction by M. L. Rosenthal. 142 pages. paperback. Cover design by Wendy Taylor.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - A survivor of a concentration camp, Dan Pagis possesses a vision which is essentially tragic. He is engaged with Israel's griefs and, while he is capable of a moving colloquial humanity, his work often exhibits an apocalyptic intensity. The poems of T. Carmi are less dramatic in tone but with reverberations far greater than they pretend. He has a natural preference for an indirect and lyrical method in which a tragic sense of history combines with a pervasive and passionate anticipation of discovery. These two poets of international reputation are accurate spokesmen for the modern mind, as well as for Israel's special and precarious position and for their own very individual natures.



Carmi T and Pagis DanCarmi (December 31, 1925 – November 20, 1994) was the literary pseudonym of Carmi Charney, an American-born Israeli poet. Carmi Charney was born in New York City. His father, Rabbi Bernard (Baruch) Charney, was the principal of Yeshiva of Central Queens, a Jewish day school. The family spoke Hebrew at home. Charney studied at Yeshiva University and Columbia University. In 1946, he worked with orphan children in France whose parents were murdered in the Holocaust. He moved to Israel in 1948, just before the outbreak of the Israeli War of Independence. He died in 1994. The first initial T is the English equivalent of the Hebrew letter tet, which Carmi adopted as it is the first letter of his original family name as written in Hebrew. Carmi's books translated into English include Blemish and Dream (1951), There are no black Flowers (1953), The Brass Serpent (1961), Somebody Like You(1971), and At The Stone Of Losses (1983). He was also translator of Shakespeare to Hebrew. His translations include Midsummer Night's Dream, Measure For Measure, Hamlet, Much Ado About Nothing and Othello. He co-edited The Modern Hebrew Poem Itself, together with Stanley Burnshaw and Ezra Spicehandler. His major critical work was as editor and translator of The Penguin book of Hebrew Verse, a chronological anthology that spans 3,000 years of written Hebrew poetry. He wrote the preface to a collection of Gabriel Preil's poems, Sunset Possibilities and Other Poems (1985). T. Carmi was also the pseudonymous co-author jointly with Shoshana Heyman, Kush (short for the acronym of Carmi ve(and) Shoshana - in hebr.) of the classic Israeli children's book Shmulikipod. A sick boy laments that he has no one for company but the donkeys on his pajamas. Relief comes in the form of a visit from a somewhat short-tempered hedgehog (Hebr. kipod) named Shmulik. Dan Pagis (October 16, 1930 – July 29, 1986) was an Israeli poet, lecturer and Holocaust survivor. He was born in R?d?u?i, Bukovina in Romania and imprisoned as a child in a concentration camp in Ukraine. He escaped in 1944 and in 1946 arrived safely in Israel where he became a schoolteacher in a kibbutz. He earned his PhD from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem where he later taught Medieval Hebrew literature. His first published book of poetry was Sheon ha-Tsel (The Shadow Clock) in 1959. In 1970 he published a major work entitled Gilgul – which may be translated as Revolution, cycle, transformation, metamorphosis, metempsychosis, etc. Other poems include: Written in Pencil in the Sealed Railway-Car, Testimony, Europe, Late, Autobiography, and Draft of a Reparations Agreement. Pagis knew many languages, and translated multiple works of literature. He died of cancer in Israel on July 29, 1986. Pagis's most widely cited poem is Written in Pencil in the Sealed Railway Car.



0140421467Celan, Paul. Selected Poems. Middlesex. 1972. Penguin Books. 0140421467. Penguin Modern European Poets series. Translated from the German by Michael Hamburger & Christopher Middleton and With An Introduction by Michael Hamburger. 108 pages. paperback. Cover designed by Sylvia Clench. Photograph by Gisela Discher-Bezzel.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - Celan saw his poems as ‘messages in a bottle’. They could be picked up or lost - the risk involved was as essential for him as the need to communicate. Although influenced by early Expressionism, Celan occupies an isolated position in German literature. His work is characterized by a sense of horror - a legacy of his experiences under the Nazis, - a belief that poetry must be open to the unexpected and unpredictable, and by • his search for a redefinition of reality. Celan’s poetic progression is conveyed by his use of images, not by argument, and the difficulty and paradox are couched in a unique purity of form and diction.


Celan PaulPaul Celan (November 23, 1920 – approximately April 20, 1970) was the most frequently used pseudonym of Paul Antschel, one of the major poets of the post-World War II era. Celan was born in 1920 into a German-speaking Jewish family in Cernauti, Bukovina, then part of Romania (now part of Ukraine). His father, Leo Antschel, was a Zionist who advocated his son’s education in Hebrew at Safah Ivriah, an institution previously convinced of the wisdom of assimilation into Austrian culture, and one which favourably received Chaim Weizmann of the World Zionist Organization in 1927. His mother, Fritzi, was an avid reader of German literature who insisted German be the language of the house. After his Bar Mitzvah in 1933, Celan abandoned Zionism (at least to some extent) and terminated his formal Hebrew education, instead becoming active in Jewish Socialist organizations and fostering support for the Republican cause in the Spanish Civil War. His earliest known poem, titled Mother’s Day 1938 was an earnest, if sentimental, profession of love. In 1938, Celan travelled to Tours, France to study medicine (the newly-imposed Jewish quota in Romanian universities and the Anschluss precluded Bucharest and Vienna), but returned to Cernauti in 1939 to study literature and Romance languages. His journey to France took him through Berlin as the events of Kristallnacht unfolded, and also introduced him to his uncle, Bruno Schrager, who later was among the French detainees who died at Birkenau. The Soviet occupation in June 1940 deprived Celan of any lingering illusions about Stalinism and Soviet Communism stemming from his earlier socialist engagements; the Soviets quickly imposed bureaucratic reforms on the university where he was studying Romance philology, and the Red Army brought deportations to Siberia, just as Nazi Germany and Romania brought ghettos, internment, and forced labour a year later. On arrival in July 1941 the German SS Einsatzkommando and their Romanian allies burned down the city’s six-hundred-year-old Great Synagogue. In October, the Romanians deported a large number of Jews after forcing them into a ghetto, where Celan translated William Shakespeare’s Sonnets and continued to write his own poetry, all the while being exposed to traditional Yiddish songs and culture. Before the ghetto was dissolved in the fall of that year, Celan was pressed into labor, first clearing the debris of a demolished post office, and then gathering and destroying Russian books. The local mayor strove to mitigate the harsh circumstances until the governor of Bukovina had the Jews rounded up and deported, starting on a Saturday night in June 1942. Accounts of his whereabouts on that evening vary, but it is certain that Celan was not with his parents when they were taken from their home on June 21 and sent by train to an internment camp in Transnistria, where two-thirds of the deportees perished. Celan’s parents were taken across the Southern Bug and handed over to the Germans, where his father likely perished of typhus and his mother was shot dead after being exhausted by forced labour. Later on, after having himself been taken to the labour camps in the Old Kingdom, Celan would receive reports of his parents’ deaths earlier that year. Celan remained in these labour camps until February 1944, when the Red Army’s advance forced the Romanians to abandon them, whereupon he returned to Cernauti shortly before the Soviets returned to reassert their control. There, he worked briefly as a nurse in the mental hospital. Early versions of Todesfuge were circulated at this time, a poem that clearly relied on accounts coming from the now-liberated camps in Poland. Friends from this period recall expression of immense guilt over his separation from his parents, whom he had tried to convince to go into hiding prior to the deportations, shortly before their death. Considering emigration to Palestine and wary of widespread Soviet antisemitism, Celan left Soviet-occupied territory in 1945 for Bucharest, where he remained until 1947. He was active in the Jewish literary community as both a translator of Russian literature into Romanian, and as a poet, publishing his work under a variety of pseudonyms. The literary scene of the time was richly populated with surrealists — Gellu Naum, Ilarie Voronca, Gherasim Luca, Paul Paun, and Dolfi Trost —, and it was in this period that Celan developed pseudonyms both for himself and his friends, including the one he took as his pen name. A version of Todesfuge appeared as Tangoul Mortii (‘Death Tango‘) in a Romanian translation of May 1947. The surrealist ferment of the time was such that additional remarks had to be published explaining that the dancing and musical performances of the poem were realities of the extermination camp life. Night and Fog, another poem from that era, includes a description of the Auschwitz Orchestra, an institution organized by the SS to assemble and play selections of German dances and popular songs. (The SS man interviewed by Claude Lanzmann for his film Shoah, who rehearsed the songs prisoners were made to sing in the death camp, remarked that no Jews taught the song survived. As Romanian autonomy became increasingly tenuous in the course of that year, Celan fled Romania for Vienna, Austria. It was there that he befriended Ingeborg Bachmann, who had just completed a dissertation on Martin Heidegger. Facing a city divided between occupying powers and with little resemblance to the mythic city it once was, which had harboured the then-shattered Austro-Hungarian Jewish community, he moved to Paris in 1948, where he found a publisher for his first poetry collection, Der Sand aus den Urnen (‘Sand from the Urns’). His first few years in Paris were marked by intense feelings of loneliness and isolation, as expressed in letters to his colleagues, including his longtime friend from Cernauti, Petre Solomon. It was also during this time that he exchanged many letters with Diet Kloos, a Dutch chanteuse. She visited him twice in Paris between 1949 and 1951. In a published edition of these letters, near the end of the exchange, Celan seems to be entertaining an amorous interest in her. In 1952 Celan received an invitation to the semiannual meetings of Group 47. At a 1953 meeting he read his poem Todesfuge (‘Death Fugue’), a depiction of concentration camp life. His reading style, which was based on Hungarian folk poems, was off-putting to the German audience. His poetry was sharply criticized. When Ingeborg Bachmann, with whom Celan had an affair, won the Group’s prize for her collection Die gestundete Zeit (The Extended Hours), Celan (whose work had received only six votes) said ‘After the meeting, only six people remembered my name’. He was not invited again. In November 1951, he met the graphic artist Gisèle Lestrange, in Paris. He would send her many wonderful love letters, influenced by Franz Kafka’s correspondence with Milena Jesenska and Felice Bauer. They married on December 21, 1952 despite the opposition of her aristocratic family, and during the following 18 years they wrote over 700 letters, including a very active exchange with Siegfried Lenz and his wife, Hanna. He made his living as a translator and lecturer in German at the École Normale Supérieure. He was also a pen friend of Nelly Sachs, who later won the Nobel Prize for literature. Celan became a French citizen in 1955 and lived in Paris. Celan’s sense of persecution increased after the widow of his friend the French-German poet Yvan Goll accused him of plagiarising her husband’s work. Celan committed suicide by drowning in the Seine river in late April 1970.




0140421386Ekelof, Gunnar. Selected Poems: Gunnar Ekelof. Baltimore. 1971. Penguin Books. 0140421386. Penguin Modern European Poets Series. Introduction by Goran Printz-Pahlson. Translated from the Swedish by W. H. Auden & Leif Sjoberg. 141 pages. paperback. Cover design by Sylvia Clench. Photograph by B. Danielsson.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - Gunnar Ekelöf, Sweden’s most important contemporary poet, whose work expresses an obsessive involvement with oriental mysticism, attracted the attention of many leading European writers and critics. A selection from two of his finest books, THE TALE OF FATUMEH and DIWÄN OVER THE PRINCE OF EMGION, is presented here in English by W. H. Auden and Leif Sjoberg, who have also contributed a foreword to this volume.



Ekelof GunnarGunnar Ekelöf (Stockholm, 15 September 1907 - Sigtuna, 16 March 1968) was a Swedish poet and writer. He was a member of the Swedish Academy from 1958. He was also awarded an honorary doctorate in philosophy by Uppsala University in 1958. He won a number of prizes for his poetry.








pmep hans magnus enzensberger selected poemsEnzensberger, Hans Magnus. Selected Poems. Middlesex. 1968. Penguin Books. Penguin Modern European Poets series. Introduction by Michael Hamburger. Translated from the German by Michael Hamburger, Jerome Rothenberg & The Author. 96 pages. paperback. D112. Cover photo of Hans Magnus Enzensberger by Gisela Groenewald.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - This selection draws on Hans Magnus Enzensberger’s three published volumes and also includes a number of other poems. The poet is a German — although uniquely cosmopolitan in outlook and range of sympathies — who was shaped by the Second World War and who expresses an awareness of the ideology responsible for that war and of the breakdown which followed it. His social and moral criticism owes much to Marxism, yet is free from party allegiance. As direct and accessible as graffiti on a wall, his poems are the most striking to emerge from post-war Germany.



Enzensberger Hans MagnusHANS MAGNUS ENZENSBERGER is a German author, poet, translator and editor. His books include LIGHTER THAN AIR MORAL POEMS (2000) and CIVIL WARS: FROM L.A. TO BOSNIA (1994). Enzensberger’s work has been translated into more than 40 languages.







pmep poems of gunter grassGrass, Günter. Poems of Günter Grass. Middlesex. 1969. Penguin Books. Penguin Modern European Poets series. Translated from the German by Michael Hamburger & Christopher Middleton. 88 pages. paperback. D106. Cover photo of Günter Grass by Hans Rama.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - Günter Grass, famous as a novelist, is here presented as a poet in a selection from his three published volumes. Grass's belief that an artist, however committed he may be in life, should be only a jester in art, is admirably practised in these poems in which fantasy, ingenuity and humour are substitutes for didacticism, and no word, thing or idea is too sacrosanct to be played with. Even in the recent controversial political poems, which come close to blurring his division between life and art, Grass's tremendous zest and sensuous response are felt.


Grass GunterGünter Wilhelm Grass (born 16 October 1927) is a German novelist, poet, playwright, illustrator, graphic artist, sculptor and recipient of the 1999 Nobel Prize in Literature. He is widely regarded as Germany's most famous living writer. Grass was born in the Free City of Danzig (now Gdansk, Poland). In 1945, he came to West Germany as a homeless refugee, though in his fiction he frequently returns to the Danzig of his childhood. Grass is best known for his first novel, The Tin Drum (1959), a key text in European magic realism, and the first part of his Danzig Trilogy, which also includes Cat and Mouse and Dog Years. His works are frequently considered to have a left-wing political dimension and Grass has been an active supporter of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). The Tin Drum was adapted into a film, which won both the 1979 Palme d'Or and the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. The Swedish Academy, upon awarding him the Nobel Prize in Literature, noted him as a writer ‘whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history’.




0140421580Guillevic, Eugene. Guillevic: Selected Poems. Baltimore. 1974. Penguin Books. 0140421580. Translated from the French & With an Introduction by Teo Savory. Penguin Modern European Poets series. 151 pages. paperback. Cover design by Sylvia Clench.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - Through the work of this prolific Breton poet we come close to the very heart of nature in all its rich complexity. Detached, Guillevic contemplates his subjects and waits for them to communicate with him. He is, as Teo Savory writes in her introduction, at once 'enjoyable and shocking, obtuse and aggravating, humane and inhuman. The world he has created is compulsive and remarkably easy to enter. And the admiration for his skill as an artist is international.'



Guillevic EugeneEugène Guillevic (August 5, 1907 Carnac – March 19, 1997 Paris) was one of the better known French poets of the second half of the 20th century. Professionally, he went under just the single name ‘Guillevic’. He was born in the rocky landscape and marine environment of Brittany. His father, a sailor, was a policeman and took him to Jeumont (Nord) in 1909, Saint-Jean-Brévelay (Morbihan) in 1912, and Ferrette (Haut-Rhin) in 1919. After a BA in mathematics, he was placed by the exams of 1926, in the Administration of Registration (Alsace, Ardennes). Appointed in 1935 to Paris as senior editor at the Directorate General at the Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs, he was assigned in 1942 to control the economy. He was from 1945 to 1947 in the Cabinets of Ministers Francis Billoux (National Economy) and Charles Tillon (Reconstruction). In 1947 after the ouster of Communist ministers, he returned to the Inspector General of Economics, where his work included studies of the economy and planning, until his retirement in 1967. He was a pre-war friend of Jean Follain, who introduced him to the ‘Sagesse’ group. Then he belonged to the ‘School of Rochefort’. He was a practicing Catholic for about thirty years. He became a communist sympathizer during the Spanish Civil War, and in 1942 joined the Communist Party when he joined with Paul Éluard, and participated in the publications of the underground press (Pierre Seghers, Jean Lescure).



0140421572Haavikko, Paavo and Tranströmer, Tomas. Selected Poems: Paavo Haavikko and Tomas Tranströmer. Middlesex. 1974. Penguin Books. 0140421572. Penguin Modern European Poets series. Translated from the Finnish by Anselm Hollo. Translated from the Swedish by Robin Fulton. 141 pages. paperback. Cover design by Sylvia Clench.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - The 1950s saw a major breakthrough in Finnish poetry when such modernists as Paavo Haavikko turned away from national idealism. The poetry of Haavikko, who has emerged as the most original of these poets, is remarkable for its lyricism and exceptionally direct imagery. Tomas Tranströmer, a contemporary Swedish poet, draws on a long tradition of Swedish nature poetry, and combines a wide viewpoint with a sharp focus on particular details. This selection ranges from his early, somewhat mystical poems to his later, more explicit work.



Haavikko Paavo and Transtromer TomasPaavo Haavikko (January 25, 1931, Helsinki – October 6, 2008) was a Finnish poet and playwright, considered one of the country's most outstanding writers. He was awarded the Neustadt International Prize for Literature in 1984. From 1967 to 1983, he was literary director of the Otava publishing company, and from 1989 to his death owner of the Art House publishing company. Tomas Tranströmer was born in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1931, and spent his career as a psychologist. The author of a dozen books of poetry, TOMAS TRANSTRÖMER (April 15, 1931, Stockholm, Sweden - March 26, 2015, Stockholm, Sweden) was one of the most celebrated and influential poetic figures of his generation. He was born in Stockholm in 1931 and educated at Södra Latin School and the University of Stockholm, where he received a degree in psychology. He began his psychology career in the early 1960s at a juvenile corrections institute in Sweden, and worked for several decades in the field. He is one of the world’s most translated poets, with books appearing in numerous editions in over fifty languages. In addition to his renown as a poet, Tranströmer was also a highly regarded amateur pianist and entomologist.




pmep zbigniew herbert selected poemsHerbert, Zbigniew. Selected Poems. Middlesex. 1968. Penguin Books. Penguin Modern European Poets series. Translated from the Polish by Czeslaw Milosz & Peter Dale Scott. Introduction by A. Alvarez. 140 pages. paperback. D104. Cover design by Alan Spain.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - No country has suffered more of the brutalities of Communism and Fascism than Poland. Yet Zbigniew Herbert, the most classical of its poets, is neither nationalist nor Catholic. He speaks for no party. Avant-garde in manner, but controlled, precise, and honest in thought, he stands aside from the chaos all around him, ironically bent on survival. His is the voice of sanity.



Herbert ZbigniewZBIGNIEW HERBERT was born in Lwów, Poland in 1924. In his late teens he fought in the underground resistance against the Nazis. Herbert studied law, economics, and philosophy at the universities of Krakow, Torun, and Warsaw. His books include SELECTED POEMS, REPORT FROM THE BESIEGED CITY AND OTHER POEMS, MR COGITO, STIIL LIFE WITH A BRIDLE, THE KING OF THE ANTS, LABYRINTH ON THE SEA, and THE COLLECTED POEMS. He died in 1998.





0140421343Holan, Vladimir. Vladimir Holan: Selected Poems. Middlesex. 1971. Penguin Books. 0140421343. Penguin Modern European Poets series. Translated from the Czech by Jarmila & Ian Milner. 127 pages. paperback.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - Vladimir Holan is now regarded in Czechoslovakia as one of the most outstanding living poets. Yet from 1948 until 1963 official disapproval of his poetry forced him to live in isolation. Those grim years inspired his finest work: he developed themes of man’s suffering, his lost innocence and the frustration of life in a world of ambiguities. Originally influenced by surrealism, he makes use of the juxtaposition of unexpected images to evoke in the reader his own sense of the strangeness of human existence.


Holan VladimirVladimír Holan (September 16, 1905 – March 31, 1980) was a Czech poet famous for employing obscure language, dark topics and pessimistic views in his poems. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in the late 1960s. He was (1945 - 1950) a member of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. Holan was born in Prague, but he spent most of his childhood outside the capital. When he moved back in the 1920s he studied law and started a job as a clerk, a position that was a large source of dissatisfaction for the poet. He lost his father and in 1932 married Věra Pilařová. In the same year he published the collection of poems Vanutí (Breezing), which he considered his first piece of poetic art (there were two books preceding it: Blouznivý vějíř /1926/ and Triumf smrti /1930/). It was his only collection to be reviewed by the knight of Czech critics, František Xaver Šalda, who compared Holan favorably with the French poet Stéphane Mallarmé. In the 1930s Holan continued writing obscure lyrical poetry and slowly started to express his political feelings (reacting to the Spanish Civil War at first). Political poems Odpověď Francii (The Reply to France), Září 1938 (September 1938) and Zpěv tříkrálový (Twelfth Night Song) were reactions to the situation in Czechoslovakia from September 1938 till March 1939. They also made him more intelligible and popular. The poem called Sen (The Dream) is a presage of a cruel war (amazingly published in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia in April 1939). During the war he published several poetic stories in verse inspired by national humiliation. After the war he published an apocalyptic record of events in his Panychida and chanted about the Red Army in Tobě (To You), Rudoarmějci (Red Army Soldiers) and Dík Sovětskému svazu (Thanks to the Soviet Union). He left the Catholic Church and became a member of the Communist Party. In 1949 after the communist takeover he was involved in an incident against Soviet influence in the new regime and his work was on the index of Czech literature. He left the Communist Party and reentered the Catholic Church. In the last years of his life he lived in reclusive poverty in the very heart of Prague on the island of Kampa. In the 1950s and 1960s he wrote longer poems mixing reality and lyrical abstraction. He is best known in English for his postwar works, both the often teasingly obscure longer poem Noc s Hamletem (A Night with Hamlet, 1964) which became the most often translated Czech poem, and his short, gnomic lyrical reflections, with occasional submerged notes of political protest. He became a legendary poet-recluse. He had a daughter, Kateřina, born in 1949 in his bad years and in addition to the social problems she suffered from Down syndrome (he wrote a poem called Bajaja for her, which with Jaroslav Seifert's Maminka, is one of the basic children's poetry works of Czech modern literature - also illustrated by Jiří Trnka. When she died in 1977, Holan lost his will to live and ceased writing. He died in a flat in Prague's riverfront Kampa district in 1980 and was buried in Olšany Cemetery.



pmep miroslav holub selected poemsHolub, Miroslav. Selected Poems. Baltimore. 1967. Penguin Books. Penguin Modern European Poets series. Introduction by A. Alvarez. Translated from the Czech by Ian Milner & George Theiner. 101 pages. paperback. D95. Cover design by Harriet Walters based on a microphotograph by Professor P. Bassot.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - Miroslav Holub would like people to ‘read poems as naturally as they read the papers, or go to a football match. Not to consider it as anything more difficult, or effeminate, or praiseworthy.’ Holub, an internationally distinguished scientist, is Czechoslovakia’s most lively and experimental poet. The scientist in him is always creatively present in his poems, lurking behind his restless experiments in free verse and his constant probing below the obvious surface of things. Above all he shows an unwavering sense of the realities of life.


Miroslav HolubMiroslav Holub (13 September 1923 – 14 July 1998) was a Czech poet and immunologist. Miroslav Holub's work was heavily influenced by his experiences as an Immunologist, writing many poems using his scientific knowledge to poetic effect. His work is almost always unrhymed, so lends itself easily to translation. It has been translated into more than 30 languages and is especially popular in the English-speaking world. Although one of the most internationally well-known Czech poets, his reputation continues to languish at home. Holub was born in Plzen. His first book in Czech was Denní služba (1958), which abandoned the somewhat Stalinist bent of poems earlier in the decade (published in magazines). In English, he was first published in the Observer in 1962, and five years later a Selected Poems appeared in the Penguin Modern European Poets imprint, with an introduction by Al Alvarez and translations by Ian Milner and George Theiner. Holub's work was lauded by many, including Ted Hughes and Seamus Heaney, and his influence is visible in Hughes' collection Crow (1970). In addition to poetry, Holub wrote many short essays on various aspects of science, particularly biology and medicine (specifically immunology) and life. A collection of these, titled The Dimension of the Present Moment, is still in print. In the 1960s, he published two books of what he called 'semi-reportage' about extended visits to the United States. He has been described by Ted Hughes as ‘one of the half dozen most important poets writing anywhere.’



0140421718Jimemez, Juan Ramon and Machado, Antonio. Selected Poems. Baltimore. 1974. Penguin Books. 0140421718. Penguin Modern European Poets series. Translated from the Spanish by J. B. Trend and J. L. Gili with an introduction by J. B. Trend (Jimenez). Translated from the Spanish by Charles Tomlinson and Henry Gifford with an introduction by Henry Gifford (Machado). 135 pages. paperback. D171. Cover design by Sylvia Clench.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - The two Spanish poets whose work is represented in this volume were born in 1875 and 1881: both were Andalusians and both ‘adopted’ Castile. Both evolved, too, out of the modernist movement of the late nineteenth century and came to occupy central positions in the Spanish poetry of this century. Each in his way strove to speak more directly through poetry, abandoning rhyme for the traditional Spanish assonance and experimenting in free verse. And finally both these two friends (like so many artists and painters) were forced to leave the Spain they loved at the time of the Civil War.


Jimemez Juan Ramon and Machado AntonioJuan Ramón Jiménez - Nobel Prize winner - was born in Moguer, Andalucia in 1881, and is considered to be a central figure in contemporary Spanish poetry. The successor of Ruben Dario in the development of modernism, his work shows many French influences, and he has been the greatest poetical influence in that brilliant school of modern Spanish poetry of which F. Garcia Lorca was one of the younger members. There is nothing in Jiménez of the conventional Audalusian ‘20 pose known as Popularismo, so important in the poetry of some of his contemporaries, though he is no less fundamentally Spanish. He lived his later years in the U.S.A. and Puerto Rico and died in 1958. Antonio Machado died in 1939 at the age of sixty-four. As a boy he went to school in Madrid, became involved in its literary life in the 1890s and published some satirical comments on the social and literary scene in 1893. On a visit to Paris in 1899 he met Oscar Wilde and Moréas. A teacher of French by profession, he married his landlady’s daughter in 1909, and his personal happiness coupled with a new concern for Spanish problems helped to liberate his poetry from its early tristesse. His wife, however, died tragically in 1912 and Machado became increasingly melancholic with an ironic, cryptic note creeping into his poetry. A staunch Republican at the time of the Civil War, he died in exile in France.




0140420916Keeley, Edmund and Sherrard, Philip (editors & translators). Four Greek Poets: C.P. Cavafy, George Seferis, Odysseus Elytis, Nikos Gatsos. Middlesex. 1970. Penguin Books. 0140420916. Penguin Modern European Poets series. Includes Work by - C. P. Cavafy, George Seferis, Odysseus Elytis, & Nikos Gatsos. Translated from the Greek & Edited by Edmund Keeley & Philip Sherrard. 110 pages. paperback. Cover design by Alan Spain.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - Cavafy, Elytis, Gatsos, Seferis – Of the four Greek authors represented in this volume, Cavafy and Seferis are poets with international reputations and Seferis has won a Nobel Prize. Elytis and Gatsos, who belong to a younger generation, are fully established in Greece and now winning recognition abroad.


Cavafy C PCONSTANTINE PETROU CAVAFY, widely recognized as the greatest of modern Greek poets, was born in Alexandria in 1863 into a family originally from Constantinople. After some childhood years spent in England and a stay in Constantinople in the early 1880s, he lived his entire life in Alexandria. It was there that he would write and (for the most part) self-publish the poems for which he became known, working all the while as a clerk in the Irrigation Office of the Egyptian government. His poetry was first brought to the attention of the English-speaking public in 1919 by E. M. Forster, whom he had met during the First World War. Cavafy died in Alexandria on April 29, 1933, his seventieth birthday; the first commercially published collection of his work appeared posthumously, in Alexandria, in 1935.


Seferis GeorgeGEORGE SEFERIS (the nom de plume of George Seferiades) was born in Smyrna in 1900, and moved to Athens with his family when he was fourteen. He studied in Paris at the end of the First World War and afterward joined the Greek diplomatic service. From 1957 to 1962 he lived in London as Ambassador of Greece to the Court of St. James’s. His first collection of poetry, TURNING POINT, was published in 1931. Since then he has published several other collections of both poetry and essays, which have been translated into many languages, and for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize. He holds honorary degrees from Cambridge (1960), Thessalonika (1964) and Oxford (1964).


Elytis OdysseusODYSSEUS ELYTIS was born in Heraklion, Crete, in 1911. He studied law at the University of Athens. His poems began to appear in periodicals in 1935; since the publication of his first book of poems in 1940, ten further volumes of his poetry have appeared. He has also published three collections of essays, and translations from a wide range of modern writers including Rimbaud, Genet, Mayakovsky, Lorca, Ungaretti and Brecht. In 1940-1 he took part in the campaign against the Italian fascists in Albania. During the Nazi occupation he was one of the most prominent poets of the Greek resistance. He lived in Paris from 1948-52; since then his home has been in Athens. The Nobel Prize was awarded to him 'for his poetry which against the background of Greek tradition depicts with sensuous strength and intellectual clearsightedness modern man's struggle for freedom and creativeness.’


Gatsos NikosNIKOS GATSOS (8 December 1911 – 12 May 1992) was a Greek poet, translator and lyricist. Nikos Gatsos was born in 1911 in Asea in Arcadia, a district of the Peloponnese, where he finished primary school (dimotiko). He attended high school (gymnasio) in Tripoli, where he became acquainted with literature and foreign languages. Afterwards, he moved to Athens, where he studied literature, philosophy, and history at the University of Athens for two years only. His knowledge of English and French was quite good and he was already familiar with Kostis Palamas, Dionysios Solomos, Greek folk songs, and recent trends in European poetry. In Athens, he came in contact with the literary circles of the day becoming one of the lifelong friends of fellow poet Odysseus Elytis and published his poems, small in extent and in a classic style, in the magazines Nea Estia (1931–32) and Rythmos (1933). During that period he also published criticism. In 1935 he lived in France, in Paris and the South of France. In 1936 he met Odysseus Elytis, his ‘brother’ in poetry. In 1943, Aetos published his long poem Amorgos, a major contribution to contemporary Greek poetry notable especially for its combination of surrealism with traditional Greek folk poetry motifs. He subsequently published three more poems: ‘Elegeio’ (1946) in Filologika Chronika, ‘The Knight and Death’ (1947), and ‘Song of Old Times’ (1963), dedicated to Yorgos Seferis, in Tachydromos magazine. After World War II, he worked with the Greek-British Review as a translator and with Ellinikí Radiofonía as a radio director. During that period he also began writing lyrics for the music of Manos Hadjidakis, opening a brilliant career in modern Greek songwriting. In due course he also collaborated with Mikis Theodorakis and other notable composers. His work as a whole combines universal poetic themes such as the problems of evil, injustice, sacrifice, and the pains of love, with more specifically Greek concerns such as the sorrows of exile. His capability to handle language with accuracy led the ‘Art Theatre’, the ‘National Theatre’ and the ‘Popular Theatre’ of Greece to entrust him with translations of various plays -translations that became ‘legendary’- first and foremost being ‘Blood Wedding’ by Federico Garcia Lorca. He had a special relationship with Manos Hadjidakis and Nana Mouskouri. His British friends were Philip Sherrard, Peter Levi and Peter Jay, and his Irish friend, Desmond O'Grady. He died in Athens on 12 May 1992. Nikos Gatsos devoted considerable time to translating plays from various languages in Greek, mainly for the Greek National Theatre, the Greek Theatre of Art, and the Greek Popular Theatre. In 1944, he translated (for Filologika Chronika) the poem ‘Night song’ by Federico García Lorca. All of the plays he translated were staged at the Greek National Theatre and the Greek Theatre of Art. He also associated with the magazines Nea Estia, Tram,Makedonikes Imeres, Mikro Tetradio, Nea Grammata, Filologika Chronika, and Kallitechnika Nea. In addition, he directed plays during his association with Greek radio. Nikos Gatsos played a great role, as a poet, in Greek song. He wrote lyrics for major Greek composers, including Manos Hadjidakis, Mikis Theodorakis, Stavros Xarchakos, Demos Moutsis, Loukianos Kelaidonis, Christodoulos Chalaris and Eleni Karaindrou. He wrote lyrics for several films and for the Elia Kazan's ‘America-America’. His lyrics are known over the world because of Nana Mouskouri. His lyrics are collected in the book Ola ta tragoudia (Patakis, 1999).


Keeley EdmundEDMUND KEELEY is Professor of English and Director of the Creative Writing Program at Princeton University. He has translated several of the leading modem Greek poets, often in collaboration with Philip Sherrard (the complete poems of C. P. Cavafy and George Seferis, a selection of Angelus Sikelianos). His translations of Yannis Ritsos, Ritsos in Parentheses, appeared in 1979.





PHILIP OWEN ARNOULD SHERRARD (23 September 1922 – 30 May 1995) was a British author, translator and philosopher. His work includes important translations of Modern Greek poets, and books on Modern Greek literature and culture, metaphysics, theology, art and aesthetics. A pioneer of Modern Greek studies in England, he was influential in making major Greek poets of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries known in the English-speaking world. He was also a prolific writer on theological and philosophical themes, addressing the origins of the social and spiritual crisis he believed was occurring in the developed world, and specifically exploring modern attitudes towards the environment from a Christian perspective.





0140421378Kovner, Abba / Sachs, Nelly. Selected Poems. Middlesex. 1971. Penguin Books. 0140421378. Penguin Modern European Poets series. Translated from the Hebrew by Shirley Kaufman & Nurit Orchan (Kovner). Translated from the German by Michael Hamburger and Others (Sachs). Selected with an Introduction by Stephen Spender. 123 pages. paperback. The cover, designed by Sylvia Clench, show: large detail, Nelly Sachs; small detail, Abba Kovner.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - From the Jewish tradition of suffering and the holocaust Abba Kovner and Nelly Sachs draw their different inspirations. The poetry of Abba Kovner, written in Hebrew and translated here for the first time into English, reflects his entirely Jewish background, while the work of the Nobel prize-winner Nelly Sachs, who writes in German, displays close links with modern European poetry. Stephen Spender introduces this collection with a major essay on the contrasted poetic treatment of violence and suffering in the Western and the Hebrew traditions.


Kovner Abba and Sachs NellyAbba Kovner (March 14, 1918 – September 25, 1987) was a Jewish Hebrew poet, writer and partisan leader. He became one of the great poets of modern Israel. He was a cousin of the Israeli Communist Party leader Meir Vilner.

Nelly Sachs (10 December 1891 – 12 May 1970) was a Jewish German poet and playwright whose experiences resulting from the rise of the Nazis in World War II Europe transformed her into a poignant spokeswoman for the grief and yearnings of her fellow Jews. Her best-known play is Eli: Ein Mysterienspiel vom Leiden Israels (1950); other works include the poems 'Zeichen im Sand' (1962), 'Verzauberung' (1970), and the collections of poetry In den Wohnungen des Todes (1947), Flucht und Verwandlung (1959), Fahrt ins Staublose (1961), and Suche nach Lebenden (1971).



0140421912Mandelstam, Osip. Selected Poems. Middlesex. 1977. Penguin Books. 0140421912. Penguin Modern European Poets series. Translated from the Russian by Clarence Brown and W. S. Merwin. 139 pages. paperback. Cover design by Wendy Taylor.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - Osip Mandelstam, born in 1891, was one of the great Russian poets who, like his friends Pasternak and Akhmatova, bore witness to the plight of Russia under Stalin. For this he paid with his life, dying in the winter of 1938 on his way to a Siberian labour camp. Apart from his genius, the first miracle of Mandelstam's poetry – suppressed in Russia for some forty years - is that it has survived. Though the poems reflect his life and its horror, they are by no means all of them grim. In his introduction Clarence Brown describes the 'incorrigible delight' which Mandelstam took in his art. His commitment to poetry was total, and he felt acutely that his gift imposed upon him an obligation: the people, he believed, need poetry no less than bread.


Mandelstam OsipOsip Emilyevich Mandelstam (15 January 1891 – 27 December 1938) was a Russian poet and essayist who lived in Russia during and after its revolution and the rise of the Soviet Union. He was one of the foremost members of the Acmeist school of poets. He was arrested by Joseph Stalin's government during the repression of the 1930s and sent into internal exile with his wife Nadezhda. Given a reprieve of sorts, they moved to Voronezh in southwestern Russia. In 1938 Mandelstam was arrested again and sentenced to a camp in Siberia. He died that year at a transit camp.







0140420991Montale, Eugenio. Selected Poems. Middlesex. 1969. Penguin Books. 0140420991. Penguin Modern European Poets series. Translated from the Italian by George Kay. 126 pages. paperback.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - Since the publication of Ossi di Seppia, his first volume of poems, in 1925, Eugenio Montale has come to be seen in Italy as ‘the poet’ of this century. His reputation is now international. Truth is the only star Montale has followed. Leaning neither to the right nor the left, favouring neither the Catholic church nor the Communist party, he has stood on his own and kept his perception completely clear. His poetry can be difficult, even obscure; but frequently it reflects life in a strong, musical diction which has been compared to that of T.S. Eliot.


Montale EugenioEugenio Montale (October 12, 1896 – September 12, 1981) was an Italian poet, prose writer, editor and translator, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1975. He is widely considered the greatest Italian lyric poet since Giacomo Leopardi. Montale was born in Genoa. His family were chemical products traders (his father furnished Italo Svevo's firm). The poet's niece, Bianca Montale, in her Cronaca famigliare (‘Family Chronicle’) of 1986 portrays the family's common characteristics as ‘nervous fragility, shyness, concision in speaking, a tendency to see the worst in every event, a certain sense of humour’. Montale was the youngest of six sons. He recalled: ‘We had a large family. My brothers went to the scagno [‘office’ in Genoese]. My only sister had a university education, but I had not such a possibility. In many families the unspoken arrangement existed that the youngest was released from the task to keep up the family's name.’ In 1915 Montale worked as an accountant, but was left free to follow his literary passion, frequenting the city's libraries and attending his sister Marianna's private philosophy lessons. He also studied opera singing with the baritone Ernesto Sivori. Montale was therefore a self-taught man. Growing up, his imagination was caught by several writers, including Dante Alighieri, and by studies of foreign languages (especially English), as well as the landscapes of the Levante (‘Eastern’) Liguria, where he spent holidays with his family. During World War I, as a member of the Military Academy of Parma, Montale asked to be sent to the front. After a brief war experience as an infantry officer in Vallarsa and the Puster Valley, in 1920 he came back home. Montale wrote more that ten anthologies of short lyrics, a journal of poetry translation, plus several books of prose translations, two books of literary criticism, and one of fantasy prose. Alongside his imaginative work he was a constant contributor to Italy's most important newspaper, the Corriere della Sera, for which he wrote a huge amount of articles on literature, music, and art. He also did write a foreword for Dante's ‘The Divine Comedy’ or ‘La Comedia Divina’. In his foreword he mentions the credibility of Dante, and his insight and unbiased imagination. Montale's work, especially in his first poetry collection Ossi di seppia (‘Cuttlefish Bones’), which appeared in 1925: as an antifascist, he felt detached from contemporary life and found solace and refuge in the solitude of nature. The Mediterranean landscape of Montale's native Liguria was a strong presence in these early poems: they gave him a sort of ‘personal reclusion’ in face of the depressing events around him. These poems emphasise his personal solitude and empathy with the ‘little’ and ‘insignificant’ things around him, or with its horizon, the sea. According to Montale, nature is ‘rough, scanty, dazzling’. In a world filled with defeat and despair, nature alone seemed to possess dignity, the same that the reader experiences in reading his poems. Montale moved to Florence in 1927 to work as editor for the publisher Bemporad. Florence was the cradle of the Italian poetry of that age, with works like the Canti orfici by Dino Campana (1914) and the first lyrics by Ungaretti for the review Lacerba. Other poets like Umberto Saba and Vincenzo Cardarelli had been highly praised by the Florentine publishers. In 1929 Montale was asked to be chairman of the Gabinetto Vieusseux Library, a post from which he was expelled in 1938 by the fascist government. In the meantime he collaborated to the magazine Solaria, and (starting in 1927) frequented the literary café Le Giubbe Rosse (‘Red Jackets’) on the Piazza Vittoria (now Piazza della Repubblica). Visiting often several times a day, he became a central figure among a group of writers there, including Carlo Emilio Gadda, Arturo Loria and Elio Vittorini (all founders of the magazine). He wrote for almost all the important literary magazines of the time. Though hindered by financial problems and the literary and social conformism imposed by the authorities, Montale published in Florence his finest anthology, Le occasioni (‘Occasions’, 1939). From 1933 to 1938 he had a deep relationship with Irma Brandeis, a Jewish-American scholar of Dante who occasionally visited Italy in short stints before returning to the United States. After falling in love with Brandeis, Montale represented her as a mediatrix figure like Dante's Beatrice. Le occasioni contains numerous allusions to Brandeis, here called Clizia (a senhal). Franco Fortini judged Montale's Ossi di seppia and Le occasioni the highest point of 20th century Italian poetry. T.S. Eliot, who shared Montale's admiration for Dante, was an important influence on his poetry at this time; in fact, the new poems of Eliot were shown to Montale by Mario Praz, then teaching in Liverpool. The concept of the objective correlative used by Montale in his poetry, was probably influenced by T. S. Eliot. In 1948, for Eliot's sixtieth birthday, Montale contributed a celebratory essay entitled ‘Eliot and Ourselves’ to a biblio-symposium published to mark the occasion. From 1948 to his death, Montale lived in Milan. As a contributor to the Corriere della Sera he was music editor and reported from abroad, including Palestine, where he went as a reporter to follow Pope Paul VI's voyage there. His works as a journalist are collected in Fuori di casa (‘Out of Home’, 1969). La bufera e altro (‘The Storm and Other Things’) was published in 1956 and marks the end of Montale's most acclaimed poetry. Here his figure Clizia is joined by La Volpe (‘the Fox’), based on the young poetess Maria Luisa Spaziani with whom Montale had an affair during the 1950s. However, this volume also features Clizia, treated in a variety of poems, as a kind of bird-goddess who defies Hitler. They are some of his greatest works. His later works are Xenia (1966), Satura (1971) and Diario del '71 e del '72 (1973). Montale's later poetry is wry and ironic, musing on the critical reaction to his earlier works and on the constantly changing world around him. Satura contains a poignant elegy to his wife Drusilla Tanzi. He also wrote a series of poignant poems about Clizia shortly before his death. Montale's fame at that point had extended throughout the world. He had received honorary degrees by the Universities of Milan (1961), Cambridge (1967), Rome (1974), and had been named Senator-for-Life in the Italian Senate. In 1975 he received the Nobel Prize for Literature. He died in Milan in 1981. In 1996, a work appeared called Posthumous Diary (Diario postumo) that purported to have been 'constructed' by Montale before his death with the help of the young poet Annalisa Cima; the critic Dante Isella thinks that this work is not authentic. Joseph Brodsky dedicated his essay ‘In the Shadow of Dante’ to Eugenio Montale's lyric poetry.



0140421300Nezval, Vitezslav / Bartusek, Antonin / Hanzlik, Josef. Three Czech Poets: Vitezslav Nezval/ Antonin Bartusek/Josef Hanzlik. Middlesex. 1971. Penguin. 0140421300. Penguin Modern European Poets series. Translated from the Czech by Ewald Osers and George Theiner. Introduction by Graham Martin. 158 pages. paperback. The cover designed by Slyvia Clench, shows: large detail, Vitezslav Nezval; above, Antonin Bartusek; below, Josef Hanzlik (photographs Dilla, Prague).


FROM THE PUBLISHER - This volume represents three generations of Czech poetry. Vitezslav Nezval (born in 1900) adopted surrealism to express the paradoxes of experience, above all in his briefer impressions of Prague. Antonin Bartusek (1921), like Eliot (whose influence he admits), is a master of suggestion: there are hints of greatness in his language and rhythms, in his concern with life and death. With Josef Hanzlik (1938) we enter the contemporary world: here is a poet who, freshly and fluently, records his response to a world of political violence.


Nezval Vitezslav Bartusek Antonin Hanzlik JosefVITEZSLAV NEZVAL (1900-1958) was the most colourful and versatile of Czech poets between the two wars. He was associated in his early work with the French Dadaists, and was an exponent of 'poetism', but the poetry of his later years gravitated increasingly towards traditional forms. His principle volumes of poetry are: The Bridge (1922), Pantomime (1924), The Lesser Rose Garden (1926), Acrobat (1927), Night Poems (1930), Dice (193o), The Glass Cape (1933), Return Ticket (1933), Farewell and a Handkerchief (1934), Woman in the Plural (1936), Prague with Fingers of Rain (1936), The Absolute Gravedigger (1937), Mother Hope (1938), Historical Picture (1939), Five Minutes Behind the City (1940), Song of Peace (i95o), From Home (1951), Wings (1952), Cornflowers and Towns (1955), Unfinished (1960, posthumously). He has also published, anonymously, 52 Bitter Ballads of the Perpetual Student Robert David (5936), too Sonnets for the Girl who Saved the Perpetual Student Robert David (1937), and 70 Poems from the Underworld as a Farewell to the shade of the Perpetual Student Robert David (1938). Nezval also attempted a novel, wrote three plays, and translated Rimbaud, Pushkin, Heine and Pablo Neruda.

ANTONIN BARTUSEK was born in 1925 in Zeltava, Western Moravia, and studied at Charles University, Prague. He now works at the State Office for Historical Monuments. His volumes of poetry arc: Fragments (1945), Destiny (1947) and then, following a prolonged silence during the period of Stalinism, Oxymoron (1965) and the existentialist Red Strawberries (1967), and more recently Dance of the Emu Bird and Antistar (1969) and Royal Progress (1970). He has translated American, French and German poetry and is the author of essays in the field of art history, scenography and literary criticism.

JOSEF HANZLIK, lyrical poet and translator, was born in 1938 at Neratovice near Prague and studied psychology at Charles University. He was poetry editor of Plamen, the literary monthly of the Writer's Union, until its suspension in 1969. One of the most striking personalities among the younger generation of poets, he has had a great influence on young people. His books of poetry are: The Lamp (1961), Erratic Block (1962), Silver Eyes (1963), Paris Hinterland (1963), Black Roundabout (1964), Anguish (1967), and Three Cheers for Herod (1967). His latest work is Euphoria Land. He has also written several children's books and translated Russian, American and Yugoslav poetry.



0140421351Pavese, Cesare. Selected Poems. Middlesex. 1971. Penguin Books. 0140421351. Penguin Modern European Poets series. Translated from the Italian, Edited, & With A Foreword by Margaret Crosland. 144 pages. paperback. Cover drawing by Lucia Severino.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - Cesare Pavese committed suicide in 1950, at the height of his literary career. Famous as a novelist, he will also be remembered for his sympathetic poetry, which evokes traditional, timeless Italian life and expresses profound disquiet at the encroachment of soulless urbanization. This collection illustrates his deepening preoccupation with man's isolation and includes two of his most important essays on poetry.


Pavese CesareCesare Pavese (9 September 1908 – 27 August 1950) was an Italian poet, novelist, literary critic and translator; he is widely considered among the major authors of the 20th century in his home country. Cesare Pavese was born in Santo Stefano Belbo, in the province of Cuneo. It was the village where his father was born and where the family returned for the summer holidays each year. He started infant classes in San Stefano Belbo, but the rest of his education was in schools in Turin. His most important teacher at the time was Augusto Monti, writer and educator, whose writing style was devoid of all rhetoric. As a young man of letters, Pavese had a particular interest in English-language literature, graduating from the University of Turin with a thesis on the poetry of Walt Whitman. Among his mentors at the university was Leone Ginzburg, expert on Russian literature and literary critic, husband of the writer Natalia Ginzburg and father of the future historian Carlo Ginzburg. In those years, Pavese translated both classic and recent American and British authors that were then new to the Italian public. Pavese moved in antifascist circles. In 1935 he was arrested and convicted for having letters from a political prisoner. After a few months in prison he was sent into ‘confino’, internal exile in Southern Italy, the commonly used sentence for those guilty of lesser political crimes. (Carlo Levi and Leone Ginzburg, also from Turin, were similarly sent into confino.) A year later Pavese returned to Turin, where he worked for the left-wing publisher Giulio Einaudi as editor and translator. Natalia Ginzburg also worked there. Pavese was living in Rome when he was called up into the fascist army, but because of his asthma he spent six months in a military hospital. When he returned to Turin, German troops occupied the streets and most of his friends had left to fight as partisans. Pavese fled to the hills around Serralunga di Crea, near Casale Monferrato.He took no part in the armed struggle taking place in that area. During the years in Turin, he was the mentor of the young writer and translator Fernanda Pivano, his former student at the Liceo D'Azeglio. Pavese gave her the American edition of SPOON RIVER ANTHOLOGY, which came out in Pivano's Italian translation in 1943.After the war Pavese joined the Italian Communist Party and worked on the party's newspaper, L'Unità. The bulk of his work was published during this time. Toward the end of his life, he would frequently visit Le Langhe, the area where he was born, where he found great solace. Depression, the failure of a brief love affair with the actress Constance Dowling, to whom his last novel was dedicated, and political disillusionment led him to his suicide by an overdose of barbiturates in 1950. That year he had won the Strega Prize for La Bella Estate, comprising three novellas: 'La tenda', written in 1940, 'Il diavolo sulle colline'(1948) and 'Tra donne sole' (1949). Leslie Fiedler wrote of Pavese's death ‘. .for the Italians, his death has come to have a weight like that of Hart Crane for us, a meaning that penetrates back into his own work and functions as a symbol in the literature of an age.’ The circumstances of his suicide, which took place in a hotel room, mimic the last scene of Tra Donne Sole (AMONG WOMEN ONLY), his penultimate book. His last book was 'La Luna e i Falò', published in Italy in 1950 and translated into English as THE MOON AND THE BONFIRES by Louise Sinclair in 1952.




0140421610Pessoa, Fernando. Selected Poems. Middlesex. 1974. Penguin Books. 0140421610. Penguin Modern European Poets series. Translated from the Portuguese by Jonathan Griffin. 128 pages. paperback. Cover design by Sylvia Clench.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - This volumes in a sense the work of four poets, for Fernando Pessoa adopted in his writing four separate personas. Though he led an uneventful life, his poetry reveals a mind shaken by intensive inner suffering. Alberto Caeiro, Alvaro de Campos and Ricardo Reis helped to set him free by hiving off three great swarms of thought and feeling’: each a separate poet, they convey a sense of ambivalence and consolidate a striving for completeness. Dramatic, lyrical, Christian, pagan, old and modern, Pessoa’s poets and poetry all contribute to the ‘mysterious importance of existence’.


Pessoa FernandoFernando Pessoa, born Fernando António Nogueira Pessôa (June 13, 1888 – November 30, 1935), was a Portuguese poet, writer, literary critic, translator, publisher and philosopher, described as one of the most significant literary figures of the 20th century and one of the greatest poets in the Portuguese language. He also wrote in and translated from English and French. Pessoa was a prolific writer, and not only under his own name, for he dreamed up approximately seventy-five others. He did not call them pseudonyms because he felt that did not capture their true independent intellectual life and instead called them heteronyms. These imaginary figures sometimes held unpopular or extreme views.







pmep vasko popa selected poemsPopa, Vasko. Selected Poems: Vasko Popa. Middlesex. 1969. Penguin Books. Penguin Modern European Poets series. Introduction by Ted Hughes. Translated from the Serbo-Croatian by Anne Pennington. 124 pages. paperback. D114. The cover shows a drawing of Vasko Popa by Mario Mascarelli, Belgrade.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - This is the first collection of poems by Vasko Popa, a leading Yugoslav poet, to appear in English translation. His arrangement of poems in cycles, together with his rich poetic imagination and an extreme concentration of language give a special character to Popa’s work. His international standing was recently confirmed by the award of the Austrian Lenau prize for literature. Penguin Modern European Poets is designed to present, in verse translations, the work of significant poets of this century for readers unfamiliar with the original languages. The series already includes Yevtushenko, Rilke, Apollinaire, Prevert, Quasimodo, a volume of Greek poets, Miroslav Holub, Zbigniew Herbert, and Hans Magnus Enzensberger, and Gunter Grass.


Popa VaskoVasko Popa (June 29, 1922 - January 5, 1991) was a Serbian poet of Romanian descent. Popa was born in the village of Grebenac, Vojvodina, Yugoslavia (present-day Serbia). After finishing high school, he enrolled as a student of the University of Belgrade Faculty of Philosophy. He continued his studies at the University of Bucharest and in Vienna. During World War II, he fought as a partisan and was imprisoned in a German concentration camp in Beckerek (today Zrenjanin, Serbia). After the war, in 1949, Popa graduated from the Romanic group of the Faculty of Philosophy at Belgrade University. He published his first poems in the magazines Književne novine (Literary Magazine) and the daily Borba (Struggle). From 1954 until 1979 he was the editor of the publishing house Nolit. In 1953 he published his first major verse collection, Kora (Bark). His other important work included Nepocin-polje (No-Rest Field, 1956), Sporedno nebo (Secondary Heaven, 1968), Uspravna zemlja (Earth Erect, 1972), Vucja so (Wolf Salt, 1975), and Od zlata jabuka (Apple of Gold, 1978), an anthology of Serbian folk literature. His Collected Poems, 1943–1976, a compilation in English translation, appeared in 1978, with an introduction by the British poet Ted Hughes. On May 29, 1972 Vasko Popa founded The Literary Municipality Vršac and originated a library of postcards, called Slobodno lišce (Free Leaves). In the same year, he was elected to become a member of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Vasko Popa is one of the founders of Vojvodina Academy of Sciences and Arts, established on December 14, 1979 in Novi Sad. He is the first laureate of the Branko’s award (Brankova nagrada) for poetry, established in honour of the poet Branko Radicevic. In the year 1957 Popa received another award for poetry, Zmaj’s Award (Zmajeva nagrada), which honours the poet Jovan Jovanovic Zmaj. In 1965 Popa received the Austrian state award for European literature. In 1976 he received the Branko Miljkovic poetry award, in 1978 the Yugoslav state AVNOJ Award, and in 1983 the literary award Skender Kulenovic. In 1995, the town of Vršac established a poetry award named after Vasko Popa. It is awarded annually for the best book of poetry published in Serbian language. The award ceremony is held on the day of Popa’s birthday, 29 June. Vasko Popa died on January 5, 1991 in Belgrade and is buried in the Aisle of the Deserving Citizens in Belgrade’s New Cemetery. Vasko Popa wrote in a succinct modernist style that owed much to surrealism and Serbian folk traditions (via the influence of Serbian poet Momcilo Nastasijevic) and absolutely nothing to the Socialist Realism that dominated Eastern European literature after World War II; in fact, he was the first in post-World War II Yugoslavia to break with the Socialist Realism. He created a unique poetic language, mostly elliptical, that combines a modern form, often expressed through colloquial speech and common idioms and phrases, with old, oral folk traditions of Serbia – epic and lyric poems, stories, myths, riddles, etc. In his work, earthly and legendary motifs mix, myths come to surface from the collective subconscious, the inheritance and everyday are in constant interplay, and the abstract is reflected in the specific and concrete, forming a unique and extraordinary poetic dialectics.In The New York Times obituary, the author mentions that the English poet Ted Hughes lauded Popa as an ‘epic poet’ with a ‘vast vision’. The author also mentions that in his introduction to ‘Vasko Popa: Collected Poems 1943-1976,’ translated by Anne Pennington Hughes says: ‘As Popa penetrates deeper into his life, with book after book, it begins to look like a universe passing through a universe. It is one of the most exciting things in modern poetry, to watch this journey being made.’ Since his first book of verse, Kora (Bark), Vasko Popa has gained steadily in stature and popularity. His poetic achievement - eight volumes of verse written over a period of thirty eight years - has received extensive critical acclaim both in his native land and beyond. He is one of the most translated Serbian poets and at the time he had become one of the most influential World poets.



pmep prevert selections from parolesPrevert, Jacques. Selections From Paroles. Middlesex. 1965. Penguin Books. Penguin Modern European Poets series. Translated from the French & With an Introduction by Lawrence Ferlinghetti. 139 pages. paperback. D84. Cover photograph by Chris Marker.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - Jacques Prevert is a contemporary master of the plain but telling word. PAROLES is his central work. This selection with translations by Lawrence Ferlinghetti shows both Prevert’s violently anarchic moods and the lyricism that makes him a poet of the people.


Prevert JacquesJacques Prévert (4 February 1900 – 11 April 1977) was a French poet and screenwriter. His poems became and remain popular in the French-speaking world, particularly in schools. His best regarded films formed part of the poetic realist movement, and include Les Enfants du Paradis (1945). Prévert was born at Neuilly-sur-Seine and grew up in Paris. After receiving his Certificat d'études upon completing his primary education, he quit school and went to work in Le Bon Marché, a major department store in Paris. He was called up for military service in 1918. After the war, he was sent to the Near East to defend French interests there. He died in Omonville-la-Petite, on 11 April 1977. He had been working on the last scene of the animated movie Le Roi et l'oiseau (The King and the Mockingbird) with his friend and collaborator Paul Grimault. When the film was released in 1980, it was dedicated to Prévert's memory, and on opening night, Grimault kept the seat next to him empty. At first when Prévert was attending primary school, he hated writing. Prévert participated actively in the Surrealist movement. Together with the writer Raymond Queneau and artist Marcel Duchamp, he was a member of the Rue du Château group. He was also a member of the agitprop Groupe Octobre. Prévert's poems were collected and published in his books: Paroles (Words) (1946), Spectacle (1951), La Pluie et le beau temps (Rain and Good Weather) (1955), Histoires (Stories) (1963), Fatras (1971) and Choses et autres (Things and Others) (1973). His poems are often about life in Paris and life after the Second World War. They are widely taught in schools in France and frequently appear in French language textbooks published worldwide. They are also often taught in American upper level french classes (French 2 in Kansas) to learn basics, such as Dejeuner du Matin. Some of Prévert's poems, such as 'Les Feuilles mortes' (Autumn Leaves), 'La grasse matinée' (Sleeping in), 'Les bruits de la nuit' (The sounds of the night), and 'Chasse à l'enfant' (The hunt for the child) were set to music by Joseph Kosma—and in some cases by Germaine Tailleferre of Les Six, Christiane Verger, and Hanns Eisler. They have been sung by prominent French vocalists, including Marianne Oswald, Yves Montand, and Édith Piaf, as well as by the later American singers Joan Baez and Nat King Cole. In 1961, French singer-songwriter Serge Gainsbourg paid tribute to 'Les feuilles mortes' in his own song 'La chanson de Prévert.' More recently, the British remix DJs Coldcut released their own version in 1993. A German version has been published and covered by Didier Caesar (alias Dieter Kaiser), which he named 'Das welke Laub'. 'Les feuilles mortes' also bookends Iggy Pop's 2009 album, Préliminaires. Prévert's poems, are translated into various languages worldwide. Many translators have translated his poems into English. In Nepali, poet and translator Suman Pokhrel has translated some of his poems. Prévert wrote a number of screenplays for the film director Marcel Carné. Among them were the scripts for Drôle de drame (Bizarre, Bizarre, 1937), Quai des brumes (Port of Shadows, 1938), Le Jour se lève (Daybreak, 1939), Les Visiteurs du soir (The Night Visitors, 1942) and Children of Paradise (Les Enfants du Paradis, 1945). The last of these regularly gains a high placing in lists of best films ever. His poems were the basis for a film by the director and documentarian Joris Ivens, The Seine Meets Paris (La Seine a rencontré Paris, 1957), about the River Seine. The poem was read as narration during the film by singer Serge Reggiani. In 2007, a filmed adaptation of Prévert's poem, 'To Paint the Portrait of a Bird,' was directed by Seamus McNally, featuring T.D. White and Antoine Ray- English translation by Lawrence Ferlinghetti. Prévert had a long working relationship with Paul Grimault, also a member of Groupe Octobre. Together they wrote the screenplays of a number of animated movies, starting with the short 'The Little Soldier' ('Le Petit Soldat', 1947). They worked together until his death in 1977, when he was finishing The King and the Mocking Bird' (Le Roi et l'Oiseau'), a second version of which was released in 1980. Prévert adapted several Hans Christian Andersen tales into animated or mixed live-action/animated movies, often in versions loosely connected to the original. Two of these were with Grimault, including The King and the Mocking Bird, while another was with his brother Pierre Prévert.



014042086xQuasimodo, Salvatore. Selected Poems. Middlesex. 1970. Penguin Books. 014042086x. Penguin Modern European Poets series. Translated from the Italian & With an Introduction by Jack Bevan. 110 pages. paperback. The cover shows a drawing of Quasimodo by Renato Guttuso.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - In 1959 Salvatore Quasimodo, the Sicilian poet, was awarded the Nobel Prize for ‘his lyrical poetry which with classical fire expresses the tragic experiences of life in our time.’ No previous edition of his work has been published in England. These new verse translations by Jack Bevan prove him to be, in the best sense, a contemporary poet, a major European voice, and a social and individual conscience - a poet who must he heard and heeded.


Quasimodo SalvatoreSalvatore Quasimodo (August 20, 1901 – June 14, 1968), pen name of Salvatore Ragusa, was an Italian author and poet. In 1959 he won the Nobel Prize for Literature ‘for his lyrical poetry, which with classical fire expresses the tragic experience of life in our own times’. Along with Giuseppe Ungaretti and Eugenio Montale, he is one of the foremost Italian poets of the 20th century. Quasimodo was born in Modica, Sicily to Gaetano and Clotilde Ragusa. In 1908 his family moved to Messina, as his father had been sent there to help the population struck by a devastating earthquake. The impressions of the effects of natural forces would have a great impact on the young Quasimodo. In 1919 he graduated from the local Technical College. In Messina he also made friends with Giorgio La Pira, future mayor of Florence. In 1917 Quasimodo founded the short-lived Nuovo giornale letterario (‘New Literary Journal’), in which he published his first poems. In 1919 he moved to Rome to finish his engineering studies, but poor economic conditions forced him to find a work as a technical draughtsman. In the meantime he collaborated with several reviews and studied Greek and Latin. In 1929, invited by Elio Vittorini, who had married Quasimodo's sister, he moved to Florence. Here he met poets such as Alessandro Bonsanti and Eugenio Montale. In 1930 he took a job with Italy's Civil Engineering Corps in Reggio Calabria. Here he met the Misefari brothers, who encouraged him to continue writing. Developing his nearness to the hermetic movement, Quasimodo published his first collection, Acque e terre (‘Waters and Earths’) in that year. In 1931 he was transferred to Imperia and then to Genoa, where he got acquainted with Camillo Sbarbaro and other personalities of the Circoli magazine, with which Quasimodo started a prolific collaboration. In 1932 he published with them a new collection, Oboe sommerso, including all his lyrics from 1930-1932. In 1934 Quasimodo moved to Milan. Starting from 1938 he devoted himself entirely to writing, working with Cesare Zavattini and for Letteratura, official review of the Hermetic movement. In 1938 he published Poesie, followed by the translations of Lirici Greci (‘Greek Poets’) published by Corrente di Vita in 1939. Though an outspoken anti-Fascist, during World War II Quasimodo did not take part in the Italian resistance against the German occupation. In that period he devoted himself to the translation of the Gospel of John, of some of Catullus's cantos, and several episodes of the Odyssey. In 1945 he became a member of the Italian Communist Party. In 1946 he published another collection, Giorno dopo giorno (‘Day After Day’), which made clear the increasing moral engagement and the epic tone of social criticism of the author. The same theme characterized his next works, La vita non è sogno (‘Life Is Not a Dream’), Il falso e il vero verde (‘The False and True Green’) and La terra impareggiabile (‘The Incomparable Land’). In all this period Quasimodo did not stop producing translations of classic authors and collaborating as a journalist for some of the most prestigious Italian publications (mostly with articles about the theatre). In the 1950s Quasimodo won the following awards: Premio San Babila (1950), Premio Etna-Taormina (1953), Premio Viareggio (1958) and, finally, the Nobel Prize for Literature (1959). In 1960 and 1967 he received honoris causa degrees from the Universities of Messina and Oxford, respectively. In his last years the poet made numerous voyages to Europe and America, giving public speeches and public lectures of his poems, which had been translated in several foreign languages. In June 1968, when he was in Amalfi for a discourse, Quasimodo was struck by a cerebral hemorrhage. He died a few days later in the hospital in Naples. He was interred in the Cimitero Monumentale in Milan. Traditional literary critique divides Quasimodo's work into two major periods: the hermetic period until World War II and the post-hermetic era until his death. Although these periods are distinct, they are to be seen as a single poetical quest. This quest or exploration for a unique language took him through various stages and various modalities of expression. As an intelligent and clever poet, Quasimodo used a hermetical, ‘closed’ language to sketch recurring motifs like Sicily, religion and death. Subsequently, the translation of authors from Roman and Greek Antiquity enabled him to extend his linguistic toolkit. The disgust and sense of absurdity of World War II also had its impact on the poet's language. This bitterness, however, faded in his late writings, and was replaced by the mature voice of an old poet reflecting upon his world.




0140420797Rilke, Rainer Maria. Selected Poems. Middlesex. 1969. Penguin Books. 0140420797. Penguin Modern European Poets series. Translated from the German & With an Introduction J. B. Leishman. 93 pages. paperback. Cover design by Alan Spain.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - Few writers of German poetry have exercised so great an influence on modern European literature as Rainer Maria Rilke, who died in 1926. Three years earlier he had published the famous DUINO ELEGIES, in which his personal struggles with the problems of God and of death found their noblest expression.


Rilke Rainer MariaRainer Maria Rilke was born on December 4, 1875 in Prague. He published his first book of poetry in 1894. The lover of Lou Andreas-Salome and secretary to Auguste Rodin, Rilke went on to become a famous figure in his own right, publishing his great book, New Poems, in 1907. After WWI, he moved permanently to Switzerland where he wrote the Duino Elegies and Sonnets to Orpheus in the last years of his life. He died of leukemia on December 29, 1926.






014042184xRitsos, Yannis. Selected Poems. Middlesex. 1974. Penguin Books. 014042184x. Penguin Modern European Poets series. Translated from the Greek by Nikos Stangos. Introduction by Peter Bien. 207 pages. paperback.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - Despite his major international reputation as one of Europe’s most important poets today, this is the first English translation which attempts a comprehensive presentation of Yannis Ritsos’s voluminous work. Both short poems and one long narrative poem have been selected to illustrate dominant features of his poetry - his arresting use of metaphor; his manner of injecting complexity into simple scenes; his remarkable skill of fusing the legendary past of Greece with Greek life today. Together these deceptively simple and very moving poems convey something of the lyric and epic qualities of a great painter in words.


Ritsos YannisYiannis Ritsos (1 May 1909 – 11 November 1990) was a Greek poet and left-wing activist and an active member of the Greek Resistance during World War II. Born to a well-to-do landowning family in Monemvasia, Ritsos suffered great losses as a child. The early deaths of his mother and eldest brother from tuberculosis, his father's struggles with a mental disease, and the economic ruin his family marked Ritsos and affected his poetry. Ritsos himself was confined in a sanatorium for tuberculosis from 1927–1931.  In 1931, Ritsos joined the Communist Party of Greece (KKE). He maintained a working-class circle of friends and published Tractorin 1934. In 1935, he published Pyramids; these two works sought to achieve a fragile balance between faith in the future, founded on the Communist ideal, and personal despair. The landmark poem Epitaphios, published in 1936, broke with the shape of Greek traditional popular poetry and expressed in clear and simple language a message of the unity of all people. In August 1936, the right-wing dictatorship of Ioannis Metaxas came to power and Epitaphios was burned publicly at the foot of the Acropolis in Athens. Ritsos responded by taking his work in a different direction: he began to explore the conquests of surrealism through thedomain of dreams, surprising associations, explosions of images and symbols, a lyricism illustrative of the anguish of the poet, and both tender and bitter souvenirs. During this period Ritsos published The Song of my Sister (1937) and Symphony of the Spring (1938).  During the Axis occupation of Greece (1941–1945) Ritsos became a member of the EAM (National Liberation Front) and authored several poems for the Greek Resistance. These include a booklet of poems dedicated to the resistance leader Aris Velouchiotis, written immediately upon the latter's death on 16 June 1945. Ritsos also supported the Left in the subsequent Civil War (1946-1949); in 1948 he was arrested and spent four years in prison camps. In the 1950s 'Epitaphios', set to music by Mikis Theodorakis, became the anthem of the Greek Left. In 1967 he was arrested by the Papadopoulos dictatorship and sent to a prison camp in Gyaros. Today, Ritsos is considered one of the five great Greek poets of the twentieth century, together with Konstantinos Kavafis, Kostas Kariotakis, Giorgos Seferis, and Odysseus Elytis. The French poet Louis Aragon once said that Ritsos was the greatest poet of our age. He was unsuccessfully proposed nine times for the Nobel Prize for Literature. When he won the Lenin Peace Prize (also known as theStalin Peace Prize prior to 1956) he declared this prize is more important for me than the Nobel.  His poetry was banned at times in Greece due to his left wing beliefs. Notable works by Ritsos include Tractor (1934), Pyramids (1935), Epitaph (1936), and Vigil (1941–1953).



0140421955Rozewicz, Tadeusz. Selected Poems. Baltimore. 1976. Penguin Books. 0140421955. Penguin Modern European Poets series. Translated from the Polish by Adam Czeriawski. 140 pages. paperback.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - Rozewicz’s belief that ‘art’ gives offence to human suffering grew directly from his war experiences and was consolidated during Poland’s chaotic and tragic post-war period. He has invented his own type of anti-poem, stripped bare of all poetic device. His work possesses the authority of unflinching honesty; its urgency and barely controlled violence are tempered only by an essential compassion. His popularity within Poland is immense: he has been voted the most important living Polish poet and has received his country’s highest literary award. This volume reveals him -as a major European voice and a poet of international stature.


Rozewicz TadeuszTadeusz Rózewicz (born 9 October 1921) is a Polish poet, dramatist and writer. Rózewicz belongs to the first generation of Polish writers born after Poland regained its independence in 1918 following the century of foreign partitions. He was born in Radomsko near Lódz. His first poems were published in 1938. During the Second World War, like his brother Janusz (also a poet), he was a soldier of the Polish underground Home Army. His brother was executed by Gestapo in 1944. Tadeusz survived the war, finished high-school and enrolled at the Jagiellonian University of Krakow, but in late 1940s moved to Wroclaw where he lived for the next thirty years. By the time of his literary debut as highly innovative playwright in 1960 with The Card Index (Kartoteka), he was already the author of fifteen acclaimed volumes of poetry published since 1944. He had written over a dozen plays and several screenplays. The eruption of dramaturgical energy was also accompanied by major volumes of poetry and prose. Rózewicz is considered one of Poland's best postwar poets and most innovative playwrights. Some of his best known plays other than The Card Index include, The Interrupted Act (Akt przerywany, 1970), Birth Certificate (Swiadectwo urodzenia, screenplay to an award-winning film by the same tite, 1961), Left Home (Wyszedl z domu, 1965), and The White Wedding (Biale malzenstwo, 1975). His New Poems collection was nominated for the National Book Critics Circle Award in 2008.



0140422684Tomlinson, Charles (editor). Renga: A Chain of Poems by Octavio Paz, Jacques Roubaud, Edoardo Sanguineti, and Charles Tomlinson. Middlesex. 1979. Penguin Books. 0140422684. Penguin Modern European Poets series. 96 pages. paperback. Cover design by Peter Brookes.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - Based on the principle of the Japanese renga - a sequence of linked poems - this remarkable composition is the work of four poets of international stature: Octavio Paz, Jacques Roubaud, Edoardo Sanguineti and Charles Tomlinson. 'Renga', said The Times Literary Supplement when it was published in France, 'is a very significant book, appealing with a particular force to anyone who suspects that English poetry could do with a major renewal. It is a work of great beauty and of possibly seminal importance. It concentrates the internationalization of poetry. It is an education in reading. It is a new genre.' Published now for the first time in Britain, this multilingual poem appears with Charles Tomlinson's English translation on facing pages.


Tomlinson CharlesPoet, artist, and translator Charles Tomlinson (January 8, 1927, Penkhull, Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom - August 22, 2015, Gloucestershire, United Kingdom) was born in Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire in 1927. Fluent in German, French, and Italian, he read English at Queen’s College Cambridge, studying with poet Donald Davie, who was an early influence and later became a close friend. Tomlinson taught elementary school before joining the University of Bristol, where he taught for 36 years. His collections of poetry include Relations and Contraries (1951), American Scenes and Other Poems (1966), To Be Engraved on the Skull of a Cormorant (1968), The Shaft (1978), Jubilation (1995), Skywriting and Other Poems (2003), for which he won the New Criterion Poetry Prize, and New Collected Poems (2009). Tomlinson’s work is known for its attention to both visual and aural perception, its painterly effects, and its cosmopolitan, even urbane, style and subject matter. Though he wrote of the natural world, especially in his early work, his philosophical bent and interest in other places and cultures—as well as his highly regarded work as a translator—made him somewhat of an outsider in British poetry. According to the critic Michael Hennessy, Tomlinson is the most international and least provincial English poet of his generation. At a time when most of his contemporaries were drawing inward, nursing and grooming their ‘Englishness,’ Tomlinson was traveling, engaging with the world, and enriching his work through the agency of American, European, and even Japanese poetic traditions. Tomlinson was a champion of America and American poetry. He held visiting positions at the University of New Mexico and Princeton University; his collection A Peopled Landscape (1963) was influenced by the landscape of the American Southwest, while Notes from New York, and Other Poems (1984) was prompted by a visit to New York. Essay collections such as Some Americans (1981) and American Essays (2001) also treated his long-standing relationship with American culture and poetry. In an interview with the Paris Review he remarked that his sense of America cohered out of many fragments, among them that tiny reproduction of a Georgia O'Keeffe, utterly unknown here at the time. I came to America at a period when the New York School had shifted attention from Paris to that city. For me, it was one of those periods of rapid assimilation—Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, Arshile Gorky, particularly Gorky. Tomlinson was influenced by American poets quite early in his career and admitted an affinity for American modernists such as William Carlos Williams, Wallace Stevens, Ezra Pound, Marianne Moore, George Oppen, and Louis Zukofsky. Critical Quarterly writer Alan Young compared the American modernist poets’ project to Tomlinson’s own ‘basic theme’, in Tomlinson’s words: ‘that one does not need to go beyond sense experience to some mythic union, that the I can only be responsible in relationship and not by dissolving itself away into ecstasy or the Oversoul.’ And Jonathan Barker, also quoting Tomlinson in the Times Literary Supplement, pointed out that Tomlinson rejects symbolic poetry as representing ‘a view of life too subjective to allow accurate contemplation of the outside world.’ Tomlinson is also known as a translator, and translated work by César Vallejo, Attilio Bertolucci, Antonio Machado, and Octavio Paz, with whom he wrote the collection Airborn/Hijos del aire (1981), a bilingual edition of a single poem which each poet translated into the language of the other. In his Paris Review interview, Tomlinson noted of his work with Paz on Airborn: I simultaneously came to realize just how many of our poets, going back to Chaucer, had been great translators, all the time extending the possibilities of English by introducing new forms and new ideas for poetry. So I went ahead and edited The Oxford Book of Verse in English Translation (1980). Tomlinson’s work as an editor—he has also edited Marianne Moore: A Collection of Critical Essays (1969) and William Carlos Williams’ Selected Poems (1976)—and translator have secured his place as one of Britain’s most important and diverse talents. In learning his craft from numerous poets of varied backgrounds, Tomlinson has found a style all his own; critics such as Cal Bedient considered him to be unmistakably an original poet. Bedient continued in British Poetry since 1960: There is in him, it is true, a measure of Wordsworth ... [but] Wordsworth discovers himself in nature—it is this, of course, that makes him a Romantic poet. Tomlinson, on the other hand, discovers the nature of nature: a classical artist, he is all taut, responsive detachment. Ultimately, it is difficult to categorize Tomlinson as either distinctly British or American. To my mind, the poet Ed Hirsch has said, Tomlinson is one of the most astute, disciplined, and lucent poets of his generation. He is one of the few English poets to have extended the inheritance of modernism and I suspect that his quiet, meditative voice will reverberate on both sides of the Atlantic for a long time to come. Charles Tomlinson became a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1998. He received numerous awards and honors for his work, including the Italian Premio Internationale Flaiano per la Poesia and the Bennett Award from the Hudson Review. He was made a CBE in 2001 and received an Honorary Doctorate of Letters from the University of Gloucestershire in 2008. He died in 2015.



0140421661Tsvetayeva, Marina. Selected Poems. Middlesex. 1974. Penguin Books. 0140421661. Penguin Modern European Poets series. Translated from the Russian by Elaine Feinstein. Foreword by Max Hayward. 136 pages. paperback. Cover design by Sylvia Clench.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - When Boris Pasternak came across a volume of Marina Tsvetayeva's poetry in 1922 he 'was immediately overcome by the immense lyrical power of her poetic form'. One of the most original Russian voices to emerge from the turmoil of the early twentieth century, Tsvetayeva, whose tragic life nourished her genius, seemed always to be drawn to doomed causes. Her commitment to White Russia caused interest in her work to decline, but in recent years her poetry has been rescued from obscurity and appreciated anew both in Russia and the West.


Tsvetayeva MarinaMarina Ivanovna Tsvetaeva (8 October 1892 – 31 August 1941) was a Russian and Soviet poet. Her work is considered among some of the greatest in twentieth century Russian literature.  She lived through and wrote of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the Moscow famine that followed it. In an attempt to save her daughter Irina from starvation, she placed her in a state orphanage in 1919, where she died of hunger. Tsvetaeva left Russia in 1922 and lived with her family in increasing poverty in Paris, Berlin and Prague before returning to Moscow in 1939. Her husband Sergei Efron and her daughter Ariadna Efron (Alya) were arrested on espionage charges in 1941; and her husband was executed. Tsvetaeva committed suicide in 1941. As a lyrical poet, her passion and daring linguistic experimentation mark her as a striking chronicler of her times and the depths of the human condition.




0140421394Ungaretti, Giuseppe. Selected Poems. Baltimore. 1971. Penguin Books. 0140421394. Penguin Modern European Poets series. Edited & Translated from the Italian with an Introduction and Notes by Patrick Creagh. 112 pages. paperback. D139. The cover shows a portrait of Ungaretti, engraved on wax by Lucia Severino (photo John Hybert).


FROM THE PUBLISHER - Condensed and deceptively simple, the poems of Ungaretti are symbolic images expressed, with supreme mastery, in a language purged of rhetoric and sentimentality. A friend of Apollinaire, Ungaretti was influenced (as appears from his preoccupation with form and language) by Mallarme and Valery. In his view civilization itself is threatened today by 'a mad disintegration of words'. In this first selection to be published in English, Patrick Creagh has succeeded brilliantly in rendering into English poetry the work of a man who has claims to be regarded as the leading Italian poet of this century.


Ungaretti GiuseppeGiuseppe Ungaretti was the son of Tuscan peasants, who emigrated to Egypt and ran a small bakery in a suburb of Alexandria. He was born in 1888. It was not until 1912 that Ungaretti left Alexandria. He went to Paris, and on the way caught his first glimpse of Italy. The war broke out, and Ungaretti went to Milan, where he published his first poems in the magazine ‘Lacerba.’ When Italy entered the war in 1915 he joined up as a private in the infantry and was sent to the front line on the Carso. There he was in the thick of some of the worst fighting of the war. His first small volume was written in the trenches and published in 1916. These poems are included in Allegria (1919). Back in Paris after the war, he brought out a volume of poems in French (La Guerre), and married in 1920. He went to live in Rome the following year, supporting himself as a journalist. His second major volume, Sentimento del Tempo (The Feeling of Time), came out in 1933. In 1939 his nine-year-old son Antonietto died, and Ungaretti's grief is clear in Il Dolore (1947). The most important of his subsequent publications have been La Terra Promessa (1950), Un Grido e Paeraggi (1952), and Il Taccuino del Vecchio (1960), In addition he has translated works of Shakespeare and Blake, Gongora, Mallarme, Racine and others.



0140421270Weöres, Sándor and Juhasz, Ferenc. Selected Poems. Middlesex. 1970. Penguin Books. 0140421270. Penguin Modern European Poets series. Translated from the Hungarian by Edwin Morgan & David Wevill. 136 pages. paperback. The cover shows: large detail, Sandor Weores; small detail, Ferenc Juhasz.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - Right and left have done their worst in Hungary, forcing poets back into their private worlds. Writing - and often experimenting - in verse of great technical proficiency and range, Sándor Weöres uses primitive (and even invented) mythology to remind us of the far-off roots of our civilization. Nature and Hungarian folklore are very prominent in the prolific, passionate verses of Ferenc Juhasz, a poet at odds with his time, who has nevertheless contributed to it some of its finest work.


Weores Sandor and Juhasz FerencSándor Weöres (22 June 1913 – 22 January 1989) was a Hungarian poet and author. Born in Szombathely, Weöres was brought up in the nearby village of Csönge. His first poems appeared when he was nineteen, being published in the influential journal Nyugat (‘West’) through the acceptance of its editor, the poet Mihály Babits. Weöres attended the University of Pécs, studying law first before moving on to geography and history. He ultimately received a doctorate in philosophy and aesthetics. His doctoral dissertation The Birth of the Poem was published in 1939. It was in 1937 that he made the first of his travels abroad, going first to Manila for a Eucharistic Congress and then visiting Vietnam and India. During World War II Weöres was drafted for compulsory labor, but was not sent to the front. After the end of the war, he returned to Csönge and briefly lived as a farmer. In 1948 Weöres again travelled abroad, residing in Italy until 1949. In 1951 he settled in Budapest where he would reside for the rest of his life. The imposition of Stalinism in Hungary after 1948 silenced Weöres and until 1964 little could be published. Weöres' translations into Hungarian were wide and varied, including the works of Ukrainian national poet Taras Shevchenko, the Georgian poet Rustaveli, the Slovenian poets Oton Župančič and Josip Murn Aleksandrov. He also translated Shakespeare's Venus and Adonis and Henry VIII, T. S. Eliot's The Waste Land, the nonsense poems by Edward Lear and Lewis Carroll, the complete poetry of Stéphane Mallarmé. His translation of the Tao Te Ching continues to be the most widely read in Hungary. Many of Weöres' poems have been set to music. The Hungarian composer Zoltán Kodály composed a choir on the poem Öregek (Old People) of the 14 years old poet, György Ligeti, a friend of the poet, set several poems from Rongyszőnyeg and other books in the composition Síppal, dobbal, nádihegedüvel. Composer Peter Eötvöshas composed two pieces, Atlantis and Ima, with texts from Weöres' poem Néma zene (‘Silent Music’). In 1980 the Hungarian filmmaker Gábor Bódy adapted the poem Psyché to make the epic feature Nárcisz és Psyché. Ferenc Juhász (16 August 1928 – 2 December 2015) was a Hungarian poet and Golden Wreath laureate (1992). He was considered a close contender for the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1976. His brother was historian Gyula Juhász. Ferenc Juhász published his first poem in 1946. In 1949, he published his first book of poems, The Winged Foal. His poems, including The boy changed into a stag clamors at the gate of secrets, have been widely translated.



pmep yevtushenko selected poemsYevtushenko, Yevgeny. Selected Poems. Baltimore. 1963. Penguin Books. Penguin Modern European Poets series. Translated from the Russian & With an Introduction by Robin Milner-Gulland & Peter Levi. 92 pages. paperback. D69. Cover design by Barrett.


FROM THE PUBLISHER - Yevgeny Yevtushenko is the fearless spokesman of his generation in Russia. In verse that is young, fresh, and outspoken he frets at restraint and injustice, as in his now famous protest over the Jewish pogrom at Kiev. But he can write lyrically, too, of the simple things of humanity - love, a birthday, a holiday in Georgia. And in ‘Zima Junction’ he brilliantly records his impressions on a visit to his home in Siberia.


Yevtushenko YevgenyYevgeny Aleksandrovich Yevtushenko (born 18 July 1933) is a Soviet and Russian poet. He is also a novelist, essayist, dramatist, screenwriter, actor, editor, and a director of several films.















9780141024233Baines, Phil. Penguin By Design: A Cover Story 1935-2005. New York. 2005. Penguin Books. 9780141024233. 255 pages. paperback. Designed by David Pearson.


FROM THE PUBLISHER -  The extraordinary story of Penguin covers and their rich and diverse design heritage. Ever since the creation of the first Penguin paperbacks in 1935, their jackets have become a constantly evolving part of Britain’s culture and design history. Rich with stunning illustrations and filled with details of individual titles, designers and even the changing size and shape of the Penguin logo itself, this book shows how covers become in design classics. By looking back at seventy years of Penguin paperbacks, Phil Baines charts the development of British publishing, book-cover design and the role of artists and designers in creating and defining the Penguin look. Coupling in-depth analysis of designers - from Jan Tschichold to Romek Marber - with a broad survey of the range of series and titles published - from early Penguins and Pelicans, to wartime and 1960s Specials, Classics, fiction and reference - this is a distinctive picture of how Penguin has consistently established its identity through its covers, influenced by – and influencing - the wider development of graphic design and the changing fashions in typography, photography, illustration and printing techniques. Filled with inspiring images, PENGUIN BY DESIGN demonstrates just how difficult it is not to judge a book by its cover.



0141024615Lewis, Jeremy. Penguin Special: The Story of Allen Lane, the Founder of Penguin Books and the Man Who Changed Publishing Forever. New York. 2005. Penguin Books. 0141024615. 484 pages.


FROM THE PUBLISHER -  The founding of Penguin Books in 1935 revolutionized the publishing industry with the idea that great writing ought to be made available for the price of a pack of cigarettes. In telling the story of Penguin and its founder, Allen Lane, Jeremy Lewis traces the changes the company wrought in cultural and political life in England and in the publishing industry worldwide, from the publication of Ulysses, with its attendant obscenity trial, to the Penguin Specials that alerted prewar Britain to the Nazi threat. Rich with anecdote and suffused with Lane's larger-than-life personality, Penguin Special touches on the entire twentieth century in its portrait of a man and a company that have changed the way the English- speaking world reads.






























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